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Esmerald class

This is the reference for the main object Esmerald that contains all the parameters, attributes and functions.

How to import

from esmerald import Esmerald

esmerald.Esmerald

Esmerald(*, settings_module=None, debug=None, app_name=None, title=None, version=None, summary=None, description=None, contact=None, terms_of_service=None, license=None, security=None, servers=None, secret_key=None, allowed_hosts=None, allow_origins=None, permissions=None, interceptors=None, dependencies=None, csrf_config=None, openapi_config=None, openapi_version=None, cors_config=None, static_files_config=None, template_config=None, session_config=None, response_class=None, response_cookies=None, response_headers=None, scheduler_class=None, scheduler_tasks=None, scheduler_configurations=None, enable_scheduler=None, timezone=None, routes=None, root_path=None, middleware=None, encoders=None, exception_handlers=None, on_startup=None, on_shutdown=None, lifespan=None, tags=None, include_in_schema=None, deprecated=None, enable_openapi=None, redirect_slashes=None, pluggables=None, parent=None, root_path_in_servers=None, webhooks=None, openapi_url=None)

Bases: Lilya

Esmerald application object. The main entry-point for any application/API with Esmerald.

This object is complex and very powerful. Read more in detail about how to start and spin-up an application in minutes.

Tip

All the parameters available in the object have defaults being loaded by the settings system if nothing is provided.

Note: More details about the defaults in the settings reference.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald.

app = Esmerald()
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
settings_module

Alternative settings parameter. This parameter is an alternative to ESMERALD_SETTINGS_MODULE way of loading your settings into an Esmerald application.

When the settings_module is provided, it will make sure it takes priority over any other settings provided for the instance.

Read more about the settings module and how you can leverage it in your application.

Tip

The settings module can be very useful if you want to have, for example, a ChildEsmerald that needs completely different settings from the main app.

Example: A ChildEsmerald that takes care of the authentication into a cloud provider such as AWS and handles the boto3 module.

TYPE: Union[Optional[SettingsType], Optional[str]] DEFAULT: None

debug

Boolean indicating if the application should return the debug tracebacks on server errors, in other words, if you want to have debug errors being displayed.

Read more about this in the official Lilya documentation.

Tip

Do not use this in production.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(debug=True)

TYPE: Optional[bool] DEFAULT: None

app_name

The name of the Esmerald application/API. This name is displayed when the OpenAPI documentation is used.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(app_name="Esmerald")

TYPE: Optional[str] DEFAULT: None

title

The title of the Esmerald application/API. This title is displayed when the OpenAPI documentation is used.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(title="My awesome Esmerald application")

TYPE: Optional[str] DEFAULT: None

version

The version of the Esmerald application/API. This version is displayed when the OpenAPI documentation is used.

Note: This is the version of your application/API and not th version of the OpenAPI specification being used by Esmerald.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(version="0.1.0")

TYPE: Optional[str] DEFAULT: None

summary

The summary of the Esmerald application/API. This short summary is displayed when the OpenAPI documentation is used.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(summary="Black Window joins The Pretenders.")

TYPE: Optional[str] DEFAULT: None

description

The description of the Esmerald application/API. This description is displayed when the OpenAPI documentation is used.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(
    description='''
                Black Window joins The Pretenders.

                ## Powers

                You can **activate_powers**

                ## Skills

                * **read_skill**
                * **use_skill**
                '''
)

TYPE: Optional[str] DEFAULT: None

contact

A dictionary or an object of type openapi_schemas_pydantic.v3_1_0.Contact containing the contact information of the application/API.

Both dictionary and object contain several fields.

  • name - String name of the contact.
  • url - String URL of the contact. It must be in the format of a URL.
  • email - String email address of the contact. It must be in the format of an email address.

Example with object

from esmerald import Esmerald
from openapi_schemas_pydantic.v3_1_0 import Contact

contact = Contact(
    name="Black Window",
    url="https://thepretenders.com/open-for-business",
    email="black.window@thepretenders.com,
)

app = Esmerald(contact=contact)

Example with dictionary

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(contact={
    "name": "Black Window",
    "url": "https://thepretenders.com/open-for-business",
    "email": "black.window@thepretenders.com,
})

TYPE: Optional[Contact] DEFAULT: None

terms_of_service

A URL pointing to the Terms of Service of the application. This description is displayed when the OpenAPI documentation is used.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(terms_of_service="https://example.com/terms-of-service")

TYPE: Optional[AnyUrl] DEFAULT: None

license

A dictionary or an object of type openapi_schemas_pydantic.v3_1_0.License containing the license information of the application/API.

Both dictionary and object contain several fields.

  • name - String name of the license.
  • identifier - An SPDX license expression.
  • url - String URL of the contact. It must be in the format of a URL.

Example with object

from esmerald import Esmerald
from openapi_schemas_pydantic.v3_1_0 import License

license = License(
    name="MIT",
    url="https://opensource.org/license/mit/",
)

app = Esmerald(license=license)

Example with dictionary

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(license={
    "name": "MIT",
    "url": "https://opensource.org/license/mit/",
})

TYPE: Optional[License] DEFAULT: None

security

Used by OpenAPI definition, the security must be compliant with the norms. Esmerald offers some out of the box solutions where this is implemented.

The Esmerald security is available to automatically used.

The security can be applied also on a level basis.

For custom security objects, you must subclass esmerald.openapi.security.base.HTTPBase object.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.openapi.security.http import Bearer

app = Esmerald(security=[Bearer()])

TYPE: Optional[List[SecurityScheme]] DEFAULT: None

servers

A list of python dictionaries with the information regarding the connectivity to the target.

This can be useful, for example, if your application is served from different domains and you want a shared OpenAPI documentation to test it all.

Esmerald automatically handles the OpenAPI documentation generation for you but sometimes you might want to add an extra custom domain to it.

For example, when using ChildEsmerald modules, since the object itself subclasses Esmerald, that also means you can have independent documentation directly in the ChildEsmerald or access the top level documentation (the application itself) where you can select the server to test it.

If the servers list is not provided or an is an empty list, the default value will be a dict with the url pointing to /.

Each dict of the list follows the following format for the parameters:

  • url - A URL string to the target host/domain. The URL may support server variables and it may be also a relative server (for example, the domain/path of a ChildEsmerald).
  • description - An optional string description of the host/domain.
  • variables - A dictionary between the variable and its value. The value is used for substitution in the servers URL template. E.g.: /my-domain/{age: int}.

You can read more about how the OpenAPI documentation is used.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(
    servers=[
        {"url": "https://testing.example.com", "description": "Testing environment"},
        {"url": "https://uat.example.com", "description": "UAT environment"},
        {"url": "https://live.example.com", "description": "Production environment"},
    ]
)

TYPE: Optional[List[Dict[str, Union[str, Any]]]] DEFAULT: None

secret_key

A unique string value used for the cryptography. This value is also used internally by Esmerald with the JWT as well the CSRFConfig.

Tip

Make sure you do not reuse the same secret key across environments as this can lead to security issues that you can easily avoid.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

aop = Esmerald(
    secret_key="p7!3cq1rapxd!@l=gz-&&k*h8sk_n8#1#+n6&q@cb&r!^z^2!g"
)

TYPE: Union[Optional[str], Optional[Secret]] DEFAULT: None

allowed_hosts

A list of allowed hosts for the application. The allowed hosts when not specified defaults to ["*"] but when specified.

The allowed hosts are also what controls the TrustedHostMiddleware and you can read more about how to use it.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(
    allowed_hosts=["*.example.com", "www.foobar.com"]
)

TYPE: Optional[List[str]] DEFAULT: None

allow_origins

A list of allowed origins hosts for the application.

The allowed origins is used by the CORSConfig and controls the CORSMiddleware.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(allow_origins=["*"])

Tip

If you create your own CORSConfig, this setting is ignored and your custom config takes priority.

TYPE: Optional[List[str]] DEFAULT: None

permissions

A list of global permissions from objects inheriting from esmerald.permissions.BasePermission.

Read more about how to implement the Permissions in Esmerald and to leverage them.

Note almost everything in Esmerald can be done in levels, which means these permissions on a Esmerald instance, means the whole application.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald, BasePermission, Request
from esmerald.types import APIGateHandler


class IsAdmin(BasePermission):
    '''
    Permissions for admin
    '''
    async def has_permission(self, request: "Request", apiview: "APIGateHandler"):
        is_admin = request.headers.get("admin", False)
        return bool(is_admin)


app = Esmerald(permissions=[IsAdmin])

TYPE: Optional[Sequence[Permission]] DEFAULT: None

interceptors

A list of global interceptors from objects inheriting from esmerald.interceptors.interceptor.EsmeraldInterceptor.

Read more about how to implement the Interceptors in Esmerald and to leverage them.

Note almost everything in Esmerald can be done in levels, which means these interceptors on a Esmerald instance, means the whole application.

Example

from loguru import logger
from lilya.types import Receive, Scope, Send

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald import EsmeraldInterceptor


class LoggingInterceptor(EsmeraldInterceptor):
    async def intercept(self, scope: "Scope", receive: "Receive", send: "Send") -> None:
        # Log a message here
        logger.info("This is my interceptor being called before reaching the handler.")


app = Esmerald(interceptors=[LoggingInterceptor])

TYPE: Optional[Sequence[Interceptor]] DEFAULT: None

dependencies

A dictionary of global dependencies. These dependencies will be applied to each path of the application.

Read more about Dependencies.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald, Inject

def is_valid(number: int) -> bool:
    return number >= 5

app = Esmerald(
    dependencies={
        "is_valid": Inject(is_valid)
    }
)

TYPE: Optional[Dependencies] DEFAULT: None

csrf_config

An instance of CRSFConfig.

This configuration is passed to the CSRFMiddleware and enables the middleware.

Tip

You can creatye your own CRSFMiddleware version and pass your own configurations. You don't need to use the built-in version although it is recommended to do it so.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.config import CSRFConfig

csrf_config = CSRFConfig(secret="your-long-unique-secret")

app = Esmerald(csrf_config=csrf_config)

TYPE: Optional[CSRFConfig] DEFAULT: None

openapi_config

An instance of OpenAPIConfig.

This object is then used by Esmerald to create the OpenAPI documentation.

Note: Here is where the defaults for Esmerald OpenAPI are overriden and if this object is passed, then the previous defaults of the settings are ignored.

Tip

This is the way you could override the defaults all in one go instead of doing attribute by attribute.

Example

from esmerald import OpenAPIConfig

openapi_config = OpenAPIConfig(
    title="Black Window",
    openapi_url="/openapi.json",
    docs_url="/docs/swagger",
    redoc_url="/docs/redoc",
)

app = Esmerald(openapi_config=openapi_config)

TYPE: Optional[OpenAPIConfig] DEFAULT: None

openapi_version

The string version of the OpenAPI.

Esmerald will generate the OpenAPI 3.1.0 by default and will output that as the OpenAPI version.

If you need to somehow trick some of the tools you are using by setting a different version of the OpenAPI, this is the field you can use to do it so.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(openapi_version="3.1.0")

TYPE: Optional[str] DEFAULT: None

cors_config

An instance of CORSConfig.

This configuration is passed to the CORSMiddleware and enables the middleware.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.config import CSRFConfig

cors_config = CORSConfig(allow_origins=["*"])

app = Esmerald(cors_config=cors_config)

TYPE: Optional[CORSConfig] DEFAULT: None

static_files_config

An instance of StaticFilesConfig.

This configuration is used to enable and serve static files via Esmerald application.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.config import StaticFilesConfig

static_files_config = StaticFilesConfig(
    path="/static", directory=Path("static")
)

app = Esmerald(static_files_config=static_files_config)

TYPE: Optional[StaticFilesConfig] DEFAULT: None

template_config

An instance of TemplateConfig.

This configuration is a simple set of configurations that when passed enables the template engine.

Note

You might need to install the template engine before using this. You can always run pip install esmerald[templates] to help you out.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.config.template import TemplateConfig
from esmerald.template.jinja import JinjaTemplateEngine

template_config = TemplateConfig(
    directory=Path("templates"),
    engine=JinjaTemplateEngine,
)

app = Esmerald(template_config=template_config)

TYPE: Optional[TemplateConfig] DEFAULT: None

session_config

An instance of SessionConfig.

This configuration is passed to the SessionMiddleware and enables the middleware.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.config import SessionConfig

session_config = SessionConfig(
    secret_key=settings.secret_key,
    session_cookie="session",
)

app = Esmerald(session_config=session_config)

TYPE: Optional[SessionConfig] DEFAULT: None

response_class

Global default response class to be used within the Esmerald application.

Read more about the Responses and how to use them.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald, JSONResponse

app = Esmerald(response_class=JSONResponse)

TYPE: Optional[ResponseType] DEFAULT: None

response_cookies

A global sequence of esmerald.datastructures.Cookie objects.

Read more about the Cookies.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.datastructures import Cookie

response_cookies=[
    Cookie(
        key="csrf",
        value="CIwNZNlR4XbisJF39I8yWnWX9wX4WFoz",
        max_age=3000,
        httponly=True,
    )
]

app = Esmerald(response_cookies=response_cookies)

TYPE: Optional[ResponseCookies] DEFAULT: None

response_headers

A global mapping of esmerald.datastructures.ResponseHeader objects.

Read more about the ResponseHeader.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.datastructures import ResponseHeader

response_headers={
    "authorize": ResponseHeader(value="granted")
}

app = Esmerald(response_headers=response_headers)

TYPE: Optional[ResponseHeaders] DEFAULT: None

scheduler_class

Esmerald integrates out of the box with Asyncz and the scheduler class is nothing more than the AsyncIOScheduler provided by the library.

Read more about the scheduler and how to use.

Tip

You can create your own scheduler class and use it with Esmerald. For that you must read the Asyncz documentation and how to make it happen.

Note - To enable the scheduler, you must set the enable_scheduler=True.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from asyncz.schedulers import AsyncIOScheduler

app = Esmerald(scheduler_class=AsyncIOScheduler)

TYPE: Optional[SchedulerType] DEFAULT: None

scheduler_tasks

Mapping in the format <task-name>: <location> indicating the tasks to be run by the scheduler.

Read more about the scheduler and how to use.

Note - To enable the scheduler, you must set the enable_scheduler=True.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(
    enable_scheduler=True,
    scheduler_tasks={
        "collect_market_data": "accounts.tasks",
        "send_newsletter": "accounts.tasks",
    },
)

TYPE: Optional[Dict[str, str]] DEFAULT: None

scheduler_configurations

Mapping of extra configuratioms being passed to the scheduler. These are Asyncz Configurations.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

configurations = {
    "asyncz.stores.mongo": {"type": "mongodb"},
    "asyncz.stores.default": {"type": "redis", "database": "0"},
    "asyncz.executors.threadpool": {
        "max_workers": "20",
        "class": "asyncz.executors.threadpool:ThreadPoolExecutor",
    },
    "asyncz.executors.default": {"class": "asyncz.executors.asyncio::AsyncIOExecutor"},
    "asyncz.task_defaults.coalesce": "false",
    "asyncz.task_defaults.max_instances": "3",
    "asyncz.task_defaults.timezone": "UTC",
}

app = Esmerald(
    scheduler_configurations=configurations
)

TYPE: Optional[Dict[str, Union[str, Dict[str, str]]]] DEFAULT: None

enable_scheduler

Boolean flag indicating if the internal scheduler should be enabled or not.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(enable_scheduler=True)

TYPE: Optional[bool] DEFAULT: None

timezone

Object of time datetime.timezone or string indicating the timezone for the application.

Note - The timezone is internally used for the supported scheduler.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(timezone="UTC")

TYPE: Optional[Union[timezone, str]] DEFAULT: None

routes

A global list of esmerald routes. Those routes may vary and those can be Gateway, WebSocketGateWay or even Include.

This is also the entry-point for the routes of the application itself but it does not rely on only one level.

Read more about how to use and leverage the Esmerald routing system.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald, Gateway, Request, get, Include


@get()
async def homepage(request: Request) -> str:
    return "Hello, home!"


@get()
async def another(request: Request) -> str:
    return "Hello, another!"

app = Esmerald(
    routes=[
        Gateway(handler=homepage)
        Include("/nested", routes=[
            Gateway(handler=another)
        ])
    ]
)

Note

The routing system is very powerful and this example is not enough to understand what more things you can do. Read in more detail about this.

TYPE: Optional[Sequence[Union[APIGateHandler, Include]]] DEFAULT: None

root_path

A path prefix that is handled by a proxy not seen in the application but seen by external libraries.

This affects the tools like the OpenAPI documentation.

**Example^^

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(root_path="/api/v3")

TYPE: Optional[str] DEFAULT: None

middleware

A global sequence of Lilya middlewares or esmerald.middlewares that are used by the application.

Read more about the Middleware.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.middleware import HTTPSRedirectMiddleware, TrustedHostMiddleware

app = Esmerald(
    routes=[...],
    middleware=[
        DefineMiddleware(TrustedHostMiddleware, allowed_hosts=["example.com", "*.example.com"]),
        DefineMiddleware(HTTPSRedirectMiddleware),
    ],
)

TYPE: Optional[Sequence[Middleware]] DEFAULT: None

encoders

A list of encoders to be used by the application once it starts.

Returns: List of encoders

Example

from typing import Any

from attrs import asdict, define, field, has
from esmerald.encoders import Encoder


class AttrsEncoder(Encoder):

    def is_type(self, value: Any) -> bool:
        return has(value)

    def serialize(self, obj: Any) -> Any:
        return asdict(obj)

    def encode(self, annotation: Any, value: Any) -> Any:
        return annotation(**value)


class AppSettings(EsmeraldAPISettings):

    @property
    def encoders(self) -> Union[List[Encoder], None]:
        return [AttrsEncoder]

TYPE: Sequence[Optional[Encoder]] DEFAULT: None

exception_handlers

A global dictionary with handlers for exceptions.

Note almost everything in Esmerald can be done in levels, which means these exception handlers on a Esmerald instance, means the whole application.

Read more about the Exception handlers.

Example

from pydantic.error_wrappers import ValidationError
from esmerald import (
    Esmerald,
    JSONResponse,
    Request,
    ValidationErrorException,
)

async def validation_error_exception_handler(
    request: Request, exc: ValidationError
) -> JSONResponse:
    extra = getattr(exc, "extra", None)
    if extra:
        return JSONResponse(
            {"detail": exc.detail, "errors": exc.extra.get("extra", {})},
            status_code=status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST,
        )
    else:
        return JSONResponse(
            {"detail": exc.detail},
            status_code=status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST,
        )

app = Esmerald(
    exception_handlers={
            ValidationErrorException: validation_error_exception_handler,
        },
)

TYPE: Optional[ExceptionHandlerMap] DEFAULT: None

on_startup

A list of events that are trigger upon the application starts.

Read more about the events.

Example

from pydantic import BaseModel
from saffier import Database, Registry

from esmerald import Esmerald, Gateway, post

database = Database("postgresql+asyncpg://user:password@host:port/database")
registry = Registry(database=database)


class User(BaseModel):
    name: str
    email: str
    password: str
    retype_password: str


@post("/create", tags=["user"], description="Creates a new user in the database")
async def create_user(data: User) -> None:
    # Logic to create the user
    ...


app = Esmerald(
    routes=[Gateway(handler=create_user)],
    on_startup=[database.connect],
)

TYPE: Optional[List[LifeSpanHandler]] DEFAULT: None

on_shutdown

A list of events that are trigger upon the application shuts down.

Read more about the events.

Example

from pydantic import BaseModel
from saffier import Database, Registry

from esmerald import Esmerald, Gateway, post

database = Database("postgresql+asyncpg://user:password@host:port/database")
registry = Registry(database=database)


class User(BaseModel):
    name: str
    email: str
    password: str
    retype_password: str


@post("/create", tags=["user"], description="Creates a new user in the database")
async def create_user(data: User) -> None:
    # Logic to create the user
    ...


app = Esmerald(
    routes=[Gateway(handler=create_user)],
    on_shutdown=[database.disconnect],
)

TYPE: Optional[List[LifeSpanHandler]] DEFAULT: None

lifespan

A lifespan context manager handler. This is an alternative to on_startup and on_shutdown and you cannot used all combined.

Read more about the lifespan.

TYPE: Optional[Lifespan[AppType]] DEFAULT: None

tags

A list of strings tags to be applied to the path operation.

It will be added to the generated OpenAPI documentation.

Note almost everything in Esmerald can be done in levels, which means these tags on a Esmerald instance, means it will be added to every route even if those routes also contain tags.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(tags=["application"])

Example with nested routes

When tags are added on a level bases, those are concatenated into the final handler.

from esmerald import Esmerald, Gateway, get

@get("/home", tags=["home"])
async def home() -> Dict[str, str]:
    return {"hello": "world"}


app = Esmerald(
    routes=[Gateway(handler=home)],
    tags=["application"]
)

TYPE: Optional[List[str]] DEFAULT: None

include_in_schema

Boolean flag indicating if all the routes of the application should be included in the OpenAPI documentation.

Note almost everything in Esmerald can be done in levels, which means when the application level is set to include_in_schema=False, no schemas will be displayed in the OpenAPI documentation.

Tip

This can be particularly useful if you have, for example, a ChildEsmerald and you don't want to include in the schema the routes of the said ChildEsmerald. This way there is no reason to do it route by route and instead you can simply do it directly in the application level.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(include_in_schema=False)

Example applied to ChildEsmerald

from esmerald import Esmerald, ChildEsmerald, Include

app = Esmerald(routes=[
    Include("/child", app=ChildEsmerald(
        include_in_schema=False
    ))
])

TYPE: Optional[bool] DEFAULT: None

deprecated

Boolean flag indicating if all the routes of the application should be deprecated in the OpenAPI documentation.

Tip

This can be particularly useful if you have, for example, a ChildEsmerald and you want to deprecate in favour of a new one being implemented.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(deprecated=True)

Example with a ChildEsmerald

from esmerald import Esmerald, ChildEsmerald, Include

app = Esmerald(routes=[
    Include("/child", app=ChildEsmerald(
        deprecated=True
    ))
])

TYPE: Optional[bool] DEFAULT: None

enable_openapi

Boolean flag indicating if the OpenAPI documentation should be generated or not.

When False, no OpenAPI documentation is accessible.

Tip

Disable this option if you run in production and no one should access the documentation unless behind an authentication.

```

TYPE: Optional[bool] DEFAULT: None

redirect_slashes

Boolean flag indicating if the redirect slashes are enabled for the routes or not.

TYPE: Optional[bool] DEFAULT: None

pluggables

A list of global pluggables from objects inheriting from esmerald.interceptors.interceptor.EsmeraldInterceptor.

Read more about how to implement the Plugables in Esmerald and to leverage them.

Example

from typing import Optional

from loguru import logger
from pydantic import BaseModel

from esmerald import Esmerald, Extension, Pluggable
from esmerald.types import DictAny


class PluggableConfig(BaseModel):
    name: str


class MyExtension(Extension):
    def __init__(
        self, app: Optional["Esmerald"] = None, config: PluggableConfig = None, **kwargs: "DictAny"
    ):
        super().__init__(app, **kwargs)
        self.app = app

    def extend(self, config: PluggableConfig) -> None:
        logger.success(f"Successfully passed a config {config.name}")


my_config = PluggableConfig(name="my extension")
pluggable = Pluggable(MyExtension, config=my_config)


app = Esmerald(
    routes=[], pluggables={"my-extension": pluggable}
)

TYPE: Optional[Dict[str, Pluggable]] DEFAULT: None

parent

Used internally by Esmerald to recognise and build the application levels.

Tip

Unless you know what are you doing, it is advisable not to touch this.

TYPE: Optional[Union[ParentType, Esmerald, ChildEsmerald]] DEFAULT: None

root_path_in_servers

Boolean flag use to disable the automatic URL generation in the servers field in the OpenAPI documentation.

Examples

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(root_path_in_servers=False)

TYPE: bool DEFAULT: None

webhooks

This is the same principle of the routes but for OpenAPI webhooks.

Read more about webhooks.

When a webhook is added, it will automatically add them into the OpenAPI documentation.

TYPE: Optional[Sequence[WebhookGateway]] DEFAULT: None

openapi_url

The URL where the OpenAPI schema will be served from. The default is /openapi.json.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(openapi_url="/api/v1/openapi.json")

TYPE: Optional[str] DEFAULT: None

Source code in esmerald/applications.py
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def __init__(
    self: AppType,
    *,
    settings_module: Annotated[
        Union[Optional["SettingsType"], Optional[str]],
        Doc(
            """
            Alternative settings parameter. This parameter is an alternative to
            `ESMERALD_SETTINGS_MODULE` way of loading your settings into an Esmerald application.

            When the `settings_module` is provided, it will make sure it takes priority over
            any other settings provided for the instance.

            Read more about the [settings module](https://esmerald.dev/application/settings/)
            and how you can leverage it in your application.

            !!! Tip
                The settings module can be very useful if you want to have, for example, a
                [ChildEsmerald](https://esmerald.dev/routing/router/?h=childe#child-esmerald-application) that needs completely different settings
                from the main app.

                Example: A `ChildEsmerald` that takes care of the authentication into a cloud
                provider such as AWS and handles the `boto3` module.
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    debug: Annotated[
        Optional[bool],
        Doc(
            """
            Boolean indicating if the application should return the debug tracebacks on
            server errors, in other words, if you want to have debug errors being displayed.

            Read more about this in the official [Lilya documentation](https://www.lilya.dev/applications/#applications).

            !!! Tip
                Do not use this in production.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(debug=True)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    app_name: Annotated[
        Optional[str],
        Doc(
            """
            The name of the Esmerald application/API. This name is displayed when the
            [OpenAPI](https://esmerald.dev/openapi/) documentation is used.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(app_name="Esmerald")
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    title: Annotated[
        Optional[str],
        Doc(
            """
            The title of the Esmerald application/API. This title is displayed when the
            [OpenAPI](https://esmerald.dev/openapi/) documentation is used.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(title="My awesome Esmerald application")
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    version: Annotated[
        Optional[str],
        Doc(
            """
            The version of the Esmerald application/API. This version is displayed when the
            [OpenAPI](https://esmerald.dev/openapi/) documentation is used.

            **Note**: This is the version of your application/API and not th version of the
            OpenAPI specification being used by Esmerald.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(version="0.1.0")
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    summary: Annotated[
        Optional[str],
        Doc(
            """
            The summary of the Esmerald application/API. This short summary is displayed when the [OpenAPI](https://esmerald.dev/openapi/) documentation is used.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(summary="Black Window joins The Pretenders.")
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    description: Annotated[
        Optional[str],
        Doc(
            """
            The description of the Esmerald application/API. This description is displayed when the [OpenAPI](https://esmerald.dev/openapi/) documentation is used.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(
                description='''
                            Black Window joins The Pretenders.

                            ## Powers

                            You can **activate_powers**

                            ## Skills

                            * **read_skill**
                            * **use_skill**
                            '''
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    contact: Annotated[
        Optional[Contact],
        Doc(
            """
            A dictionary or an object of type `openapi_schemas_pydantic.v3_1_0.Contact` containing the contact information of the application/API.

            Both dictionary and object contain several fields.

            * **name** - String name of the contact.
            * **url** - String URL of the contact. It **must** be in the format of a URL.
            * **email** - String email address of the contact. It **must** be in the format
            of an email address.

            **Example with object**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from openapi_schemas_pydantic.v3_1_0 import Contact

            contact = Contact(
                name="Black Window",
                url="https://thepretenders.com/open-for-business",
                email="black.window@thepretenders.com,
            )

            app = Esmerald(contact=contact)
            ```

            **Example with dictionary**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(contact={
                "name": "Black Window",
                "url": "https://thepretenders.com/open-for-business",
                "email": "black.window@thepretenders.com,
            })
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    terms_of_service: Annotated[
        Optional[AnyUrl],
        Doc(
            """
            A URL pointing to the Terms of Service of the application.
            This description is displayed when the [OpenAPI](https://esmerald.dev/openapi/) documentation is used.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(terms_of_service="https://example.com/terms-of-service")
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    license: Annotated[
        Optional[License],
        Doc(
            """
            A dictionary or an object of type `openapi_schemas_pydantic.v3_1_0.License` containing the license information of the application/API.

            Both dictionary and object contain several fields.

            * **name** - String name of the license.
            * **identifier** - An [SPDX](https://spdx.dev/) license expression.
            * **url** - String URL of the contact. It **must** be in the format of a URL.

            **Example with object**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from openapi_schemas_pydantic.v3_1_0 import License

            license = License(
                name="MIT",
                url="https://opensource.org/license/mit/",
            )

            app = Esmerald(license=license)
            ```

            **Example with dictionary**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(license={
                "name": "MIT",
                "url": "https://opensource.org/license/mit/",
            })
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    security: Annotated[
        Optional[List[SecurityScheme]],
        Doc(
            """
            Used by OpenAPI definition, the security must be compliant with the norms.
            Esmerald offers some out of the box solutions where this is implemented.

            The [Esmerald security](https://esmerald.dev/openapi/) is available to automatically used.

            The security can be applied also on a [level basis](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/).

            For custom security objects, you **must** subclass
            `esmerald.openapi.security.base.HTTPBase` object.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald.openapi.security.http import Bearer

            app = Esmerald(security=[Bearer()])
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    servers: Annotated[
        Optional[List[Dict[str, Union[str, Any]]]],
        Doc(
            """
            A `list` of python dictionaries with the information regarding the connectivity
            to the target.

            This can be useful, for example, if your application is served from different domains and you want a shared OpenAPI documentation to test it all.

            Esmerald automatically handles the OpenAPI documentation generation for you but
            sometimes you might want to add an extra custom domain to it.

            For example, when using `ChildEsmerald` modules, since the object itself subclasses
            Esmerald, that also means you can have independent documentation directly in the
            ChildEsmerald or access the [top level](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/)
            documentation (the application itself) where you can select the server to test it.

            If the servers `list` is not provided or an is an empty `list`, the default value
            will be a `dict` with the `url` pointing to `/`.

            Each `dict` of the `list` follows the following format for the parameters:

            * **url** - A URL string to the target host/domain. The URL may support server
            variables and it may be also a relative server (for example, the domain/path of a `ChildEsmerald`).
            * **description** - An optional string description of the host/domain.
            * **variables** - A dictionary between the variable and its value. The value
            is used for substitution in the servers URL template. E.g.: `/my-domain/{age: int}`.

            You can read more about how the [OpenAPI](https://esmerald.dev/openapi/) documentation is used.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(
                servers=[
                    {"url": "https://testing.example.com", "description": "Testing environment"},
                    {"url": "https://uat.example.com", "description": "UAT environment"},
                    {"url": "https://live.example.com", "description": "Production environment"},
                ]
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    secret_key: Annotated[
        Union[Optional[str], Optional["Secret"]],
        Doc(
            """
            A unique string value used for the cryptography. This value is also
            used internally by Esmerald with the JWT as well the
            [CSRFConfig](https://esmerald.dev/configurations/csrf/).

            !!! Tip
                Make sure you do not reuse the same secret key across environments as
                this can lead to security issues that you can easily avoid.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            aop = Esmerald(
                secret_key="p7!3cq1rapxd!@l=gz-&&k*h8sk_n8#1#+n6&q@cb&r!^z^2!g"
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    allowed_hosts: Annotated[
        Optional[List[str]],
        Doc(
            """
            A `list` of allowed hosts for the application. The allowed hosts when not specified
            defaults to `["*"]` but when specified.

            The allowed hosts are also what controls the
            [TrustedHostMiddleware](https://esmerald.dev/middleware/middleware/#trustedhostmiddleware) and you can read more about how to use it.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(
                allowed_hosts=["*.example.com", "www.foobar.com"]
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    allow_origins: Annotated[
        Optional[List[str]],
        Doc(
            """
            A `list` of allowed origins hosts for the application.

            The allowed origins is used by the [CORSConfig](https://esmerald.dev/configurations/cors/) and controls the [CORSMiddleware](https://esmerald.dev/middleware/middleware/#corsmiddleware).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(allow_origins=["*"])
            ```

            !!! Tip
                If you create your own [CORSConfig](https://esmerald.dev/configurations/cors/),
                this setting **is ignored** and your custom config takes priority.
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    permissions: Annotated[
        Optional[Sequence["Permission"]],
        Doc(
            """
            A `list` of global permissions from objects inheriting from
            `esmerald.permissions.BasePermission`.

            Read more about how to implement the [Permissions](https://esmerald.dev/permissions/#basepermission-and-custom-permissions) in Esmerald and to leverage them.

            **Note** almost everything in Esmerald can be done in [levels](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/), which means
            these permissions on a Esmerald instance, means **the whole application**.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald, BasePermission, Request
            from esmerald.types import APIGateHandler


            class IsAdmin(BasePermission):
                '''
                Permissions for admin
                '''
                async def has_permission(self, request: "Request", apiview: "APIGateHandler"):
                    is_admin = request.headers.get("admin", False)
                    return bool(is_admin)


            app = Esmerald(permissions=[IsAdmin])
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    interceptors: Annotated[
        Optional[Sequence["Interceptor"]],
        Doc(
            """
            A `list` of global interceptors from objects inheriting from
            `esmerald.interceptors.interceptor.EsmeraldInterceptor`.

            Read more about how to implement the [Interceptors](https://esmerald.dev/interceptors/) in Esmerald and to leverage them.

            **Note** almost everything in Esmerald can be done in [levels](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/), which means
            these interceptors on a Esmerald instance, means **the whole application**.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from loguru import logger
            from lilya.types import Receive, Scope, Send

            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald import EsmeraldInterceptor


            class LoggingInterceptor(EsmeraldInterceptor):
                async def intercept(self, scope: "Scope", receive: "Receive", send: "Send") -> None:
                    # Log a message here
                    logger.info("This is my interceptor being called before reaching the handler.")


            app = Esmerald(interceptors=[LoggingInterceptor])
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    dependencies: Annotated[
        Optional["Dependencies"],
        Doc(
            """
            A dictionary of global dependencies. These dependencies will be
            applied to each **path** of the application.

            Read more about [Dependencies](https://esmerald.dev/dependencies/).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald, Inject

            def is_valid(number: int) -> bool:
                return number >= 5

            app = Esmerald(
                dependencies={
                    "is_valid": Inject(is_valid)
                }
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    csrf_config: Annotated[
        Optional["CSRFConfig"],
        Doc(
            """
            An instance of [CRSFConfig](https://esmerald.dev/configurations/csrf/).

            This configuration is passed to the [CSRFMiddleware](https://esmerald.dev/middleware/middleware/#csrfmiddleware) and enables the middleware.

            !!! Tip
                You can creatye your own `CRSFMiddleware` version and pass your own
                configurations. You don't need to use the built-in version although it
                is recommended to do it so.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald.config import CSRFConfig

            csrf_config = CSRFConfig(secret="your-long-unique-secret")

            app = Esmerald(csrf_config=csrf_config)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    openapi_config: Annotated[
        Optional["OpenAPIConfig"],
        Doc(
            """
            An instance of [OpenAPIConfig](https://esmerald.dev/configurations/openapi/config/).

            This object is then used by Esmerald to create the [OpenAPI](https://esmerald.dev/openapi/) documentation.

            **Note**: Here is where the defaults for Esmerald OpenAPI are overriden and if
            this object is passed, then the previous defaults of the settings are ignored.

            !!! Tip
                This is the way you could override the defaults all in one go
                instead of doing attribute by attribute.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import OpenAPIConfig

            openapi_config = OpenAPIConfig(
                title="Black Window",
                openapi_url="/openapi.json",
                docs_url="/docs/swagger",
                redoc_url="/docs/redoc",
            )

            app = Esmerald(openapi_config=openapi_config)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    openapi_version: Annotated[
        Optional[str],
        Doc(
            """
            The string version of the OpenAPI.

            Esmerald will generate the OpenAPI 3.1.0 by default and will
            output that as the OpenAPI version.

            If you need to somehow trick some of the tools you are using
            by setting a different version of the OpenAPI, this is the
            field you can use to do it so.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(openapi_version="3.1.0")
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    cors_config: Annotated[
        Optional["CORSConfig"],
        Doc(
            """
            An instance of [CORSConfig](https://esmerald.dev/configurations/cors/).

            This configuration is passed to the [CORSMiddleware](https://esmerald.dev/middleware/middleware/#corsmiddleware) and enables the middleware.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald.config import CSRFConfig

            cors_config = CORSConfig(allow_origins=["*"])

            app = Esmerald(cors_config=cors_config)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    static_files_config: Annotated[
        Optional["StaticFilesConfig"],
        Doc(
            """
            An instance of [StaticFilesConfig](https://esmerald.dev/configurations/staticfiles/).

            This configuration is used to enable and serve static files via
            Esmerald application.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald.config import StaticFilesConfig

            static_files_config = StaticFilesConfig(
                path="/static", directory=Path("static")
            )

            app = Esmerald(static_files_config=static_files_config)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    template_config: Annotated[
        Optional["TemplateConfig"],
        Doc(
            """
            An instance of [TemplateConfig](https://esmerald.dev/configurations/template/).

            This configuration is a simple set of configurations that when passed enables the template engine.

            !!! Note
                You might need to install the template engine before
                using this. You can always run
                `pip install esmerald[templates]` to help you out.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald.config.template import TemplateConfig
            from esmerald.template.jinja import JinjaTemplateEngine

            template_config = TemplateConfig(
                directory=Path("templates"),
                engine=JinjaTemplateEngine,
            )

            app = Esmerald(template_config=template_config)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    session_config: Annotated[
        Optional["SessionConfig"],
        Doc(
            """
            An instance of [SessionConfig](https://esmerald.dev/configurations/session/).

            This configuration is passed to the [SessionMiddleware](https://esmerald.dev/middleware/middleware/#sessionmiddleware) and enables the middleware.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald.config import SessionConfig

            session_config = SessionConfig(
                secret_key=settings.secret_key,
                session_cookie="session",
            )

            app = Esmerald(session_config=session_config)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    response_class: Annotated[
        Optional["ResponseType"],
        Doc(
            """
            Global default response class to be used within the
            Esmerald application.

            Read more about the [Responses](https://esmerald.dev/responses/) and how
            to use them.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald, JSONResponse

            app = Esmerald(response_class=JSONResponse)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    response_cookies: Annotated[
        Optional["ResponseCookies"],
        Doc(
            """
            A global sequence of `esmerald.datastructures.Cookie` objects.

            Read more about the [Cookies](https://esmerald.dev/extras/cookie-fields/?h=responsecook#cookie-from-response-cookies).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald.datastructures import Cookie

            response_cookies=[
                Cookie(
                    key="csrf",
                    value="CIwNZNlR4XbisJF39I8yWnWX9wX4WFoz",
                    max_age=3000,
                    httponly=True,
                )
            ]

            app = Esmerald(response_cookies=response_cookies)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    response_headers: Annotated[
        Optional["ResponseHeaders"],
        Doc(
            """
            A global mapping of `esmerald.datastructures.ResponseHeader` objects.

            Read more about the [ResponseHeader](https://esmerald.dev/extras/header-fields/#response-headers).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald.datastructures import ResponseHeader

            response_headers={
                "authorize": ResponseHeader(value="granted")
            }

            app = Esmerald(response_headers=response_headers)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    scheduler_class: Annotated[
        Optional["SchedulerType"],
        Doc(
            """
            Esmerald integrates out of the box with [Asyncz](https://asyncz.tarsild.io/)
            and the scheduler class is nothing more than the `AsyncIOScheduler` provided
            by the library.

            Read more about the [scheduler](https://esmerald.dev/scheduler/scheduler/?h=scheduler_class#esmeraldscheduler) and how to use.

            !!! Tip
                You can create your own scheduler class and use it with Esmerald.
                For that you must read the [Asyncz](https://asyncz.tarsild.io/schedulers/)
                documentation and how to make it happen.

            **Note** - To enable the scheduler, you **must** set the `enable_scheduler=True`.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from asyncz.schedulers import AsyncIOScheduler

            app = Esmerald(scheduler_class=AsyncIOScheduler)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    scheduler_tasks: Annotated[
        Optional[Dict[str, str]],
        Doc(
            """
            Mapping in the format `<task-name>: <location>` indicating the tasks to
            be run by the scheduler.

            Read more about the [scheduler](https://esmerald.dev/scheduler/scheduler/?h=scheduler_class#esmeraldscheduler) and how to use.

            **Note** - To enable the scheduler, you **must** set the `enable_scheduler=True`.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(
                enable_scheduler=True,
                scheduler_tasks={
                    "collect_market_data": "accounts.tasks",
                    "send_newsletter": "accounts.tasks",
                },
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    scheduler_configurations: Annotated[
        Optional[Dict[str, Union[str, Dict[str, str]]]],
        Doc(
            """
            Mapping of extra configuratioms being passed to the scheduler.
            These are [Asyncz Configurations](https://asyncz.tarsild.io/schedulers/?h=confi#example-configuration).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            configurations = {
                "asyncz.stores.mongo": {"type": "mongodb"},
                "asyncz.stores.default": {"type": "redis", "database": "0"},
                "asyncz.executors.threadpool": {
                    "max_workers": "20",
                    "class": "asyncz.executors.threadpool:ThreadPoolExecutor",
                },
                "asyncz.executors.default": {"class": "asyncz.executors.asyncio::AsyncIOExecutor"},
                "asyncz.task_defaults.coalesce": "false",
                "asyncz.task_defaults.max_instances": "3",
                "asyncz.task_defaults.timezone": "UTC",
            }

            app = Esmerald(
                scheduler_configurations=configurations
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    enable_scheduler: Annotated[
        Optional[bool],
        Doc(
            """
            Boolean flag indicating if the internal scheduler should be enabled
            or not.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(enable_scheduler=True)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    timezone: Annotated[
        Optional[Union[dtimezone, str]],
        Doc(
            """
            Object of time `datetime.timezone` or string indicating the
            timezone for the application.

            **Note** - The timezone is internally used for the supported
            scheduler.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(timezone="UTC")
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    routes: Annotated[
        Optional[Sequence[Union["APIGateHandler", "Include"]]],
        Doc(
            """
            A global `list` of esmerald routes. Those routes may vary and those can
            be `Gateway`, `WebSocketGateWay` or even `Include`.

            This is also the entry-point for the routes of the application itself
            but it **does not rely on only one [level](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/)**.

            Read more about how to use and leverage
            the [Esmerald routing system](https://esmerald.dev/routing/routes/).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald, Gateway, Request, get, Include


            @get()
            async def homepage(request: Request) -> str:
                return "Hello, home!"


            @get()
            async def another(request: Request) -> str:
                return "Hello, another!"

            app = Esmerald(
                routes=[
                    Gateway(handler=homepage)
                    Include("/nested", routes=[
                        Gateway(handler=another)
                    ])
                ]
            )
            ```

            !!! Note
                The routing system is very powerful and this example
                is not enough to understand what more things you can do.
                Read in [more detail](https://esmerald.dev/routing/routes/) about this.
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    root_path: Annotated[
        Optional[str],
        Doc(
            """
            A path prefix that is handled by a proxy not seen in the
            application but seen by external libraries.

            This affects the tools like the OpenAPI documentation.

            **Example^^

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(root_path="/api/v3")
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    middleware: Annotated[
        Optional[Sequence["Middleware"]],
        Doc(
            """
            A global sequence of Lilya middlewares or `esmerald.middlewares` that are
            used by the application.

            Read more about the [Middleware](https://esmerald.dev/middleware/middleware/).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald.middleware import HTTPSRedirectMiddleware, TrustedHostMiddleware

            app = Esmerald(
                routes=[...],
                middleware=[
                    DefineMiddleware(TrustedHostMiddleware, allowed_hosts=["example.com", "*.example.com"]),
                    DefineMiddleware(HTTPSRedirectMiddleware),
                ],
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    encoders: Annotated[
        Sequence[Optional[Encoder]],
        Doc(
            """
        A `list` of encoders to be used by the application once it
        starts.

        Returns:
            List of encoders

        **Example**

        ```python
        from typing import Any

        from attrs import asdict, define, field, has
        from esmerald.encoders import Encoder


        class AttrsEncoder(Encoder):

            def is_type(self, value: Any) -> bool:
                return has(value)

            def serialize(self, obj: Any) -> Any:
                return asdict(obj)

            def encode(self, annotation: Any, value: Any) -> Any:
                return annotation(**value)


        class AppSettings(EsmeraldAPISettings):

            @property
            def encoders(self) -> Union[List[Encoder], None]:
                return [AttrsEncoder]
        ```
        """
        ),
    ] = None,
    exception_handlers: Annotated[
        Optional["ExceptionHandlerMap"],
        Doc(
            """
            A global dictionary with handlers for exceptions.

            **Note** almost everything in Esmerald can be done in [levels](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/), which means
            these exception handlers on a Esmerald instance, means **the whole application**.

            Read more about the [Exception handlers](https://esmerald.dev/exception-handlers/).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from pydantic.error_wrappers import ValidationError
            from esmerald import (
                Esmerald,
                JSONResponse,
                Request,
                ValidationErrorException,
            )

            async def validation_error_exception_handler(
                request: Request, exc: ValidationError
            ) -> JSONResponse:
                extra = getattr(exc, "extra", None)
                if extra:
                    return JSONResponse(
                        {"detail": exc.detail, "errors": exc.extra.get("extra", {})},
                        status_code=status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST,
                    )
                else:
                    return JSONResponse(
                        {"detail": exc.detail},
                        status_code=status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST,
                    )

            app = Esmerald(
                exception_handlers={
                        ValidationErrorException: validation_error_exception_handler,
                    },
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    on_startup: Annotated[
        Optional[List["LifeSpanHandler"]],
        Doc(
            """
            A `list` of events that are trigger upon the application
            starts.

            Read more about the [events](https://esmerald.dev/lifespan-events/).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from pydantic import BaseModel
            from saffier import Database, Registry

            from esmerald import Esmerald, Gateway, post

            database = Database("postgresql+asyncpg://user:password@host:port/database")
            registry = Registry(database=database)


            class User(BaseModel):
                name: str
                email: str
                password: str
                retype_password: str


            @post("/create", tags=["user"], description="Creates a new user in the database")
            async def create_user(data: User) -> None:
                # Logic to create the user
                ...


            app = Esmerald(
                routes=[Gateway(handler=create_user)],
                on_startup=[database.connect],
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    on_shutdown: Annotated[
        Optional[List["LifeSpanHandler"]],
        Doc(
            """
            A `list` of events that are trigger upon the application
            shuts down.

            Read more about the [events](https://esmerald.dev/lifespan-events/).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from pydantic import BaseModel
            from saffier import Database, Registry

            from esmerald import Esmerald, Gateway, post

            database = Database("postgresql+asyncpg://user:password@host:port/database")
            registry = Registry(database=database)


            class User(BaseModel):
                name: str
                email: str
                password: str
                retype_password: str


            @post("/create", tags=["user"], description="Creates a new user in the database")
            async def create_user(data: User) -> None:
                # Logic to create the user
                ...


            app = Esmerald(
                routes=[Gateway(handler=create_user)],
                on_shutdown=[database.disconnect],
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    lifespan: Annotated[
        Optional[Lifespan[AppType]],
        Doc(
            """
            A `lifespan` context manager handler. This is an alternative
            to `on_startup` and `on_shutdown` and you **cannot used all combined**.

            Read more about the [lifespan](https://esmerald.dev/lifespan-events/).
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    tags: Annotated[
        Optional[List[str]],
        Doc(
            """
            A list of strings tags to be applied to the *path operation*.

            It will be added to the generated OpenAPI documentation.

            **Note** almost everything in Esmerald can be done in [levels](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/), which means
            these tags on a Esmerald instance, means it will be added to every route even
            if those routes also contain tags.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(tags=["application"])
            ```

            **Example with nested routes**

            When tags are added on a level bases, those are concatenated into the
            final handler.

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald, Gateway, get

            @get("/home", tags=["home"])
            async def home() -> Dict[str, str]:
                return {"hello": "world"}


            app = Esmerald(
                routes=[Gateway(handler=home)],
                tags=["application"]
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    include_in_schema: Annotated[
        Optional[bool],
        Doc(
            """
            Boolean flag indicating if all the routes of the application
            should be included in the OpenAPI documentation.

            **Note** almost everything in Esmerald can be done in [levels](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/), which means when the application
            level is set to `include_in_schema=False`, no schemas will be
            displayed in the OpenAPI documentation.

            !!! Tip
                This can be particularly useful if you have, for example, a `ChildEsmerald` and
                you don't want to include in the schema the routes of the said `ChildEsmerald`.
                This way there is no reason to do it route by route and instead you can
                simply do it directly in the application [level](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(include_in_schema=False)
            ```

             **Example applied to ChildEsmerald**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald, ChildEsmerald, Include

            app = Esmerald(routes=[
                Include("/child", app=ChildEsmerald(
                    include_in_schema=False
                ))
            ])
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    deprecated: Annotated[
        Optional[bool],
        Doc(
            """
            Boolean flag indicating if all the routes of the application
            should be deprecated in the OpenAPI documentation.

            !!! Tip
                This can be particularly useful if you have, for example, a `ChildEsmerald` and
                you  want to deprecate in favour of a new one being implemented.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(deprecated=True)
            ```

            **Example with a ChildEsmerald**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald, ChildEsmerald, Include

            app = Esmerald(routes=[
                Include("/child", app=ChildEsmerald(
                    deprecated=True
                ))
            ])
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    enable_openapi: Annotated[
        Optional[bool],
        Doc(
            """
            Boolean flag indicating if the OpenAPI documentation should
            be generated or not.

            When `False`, no OpenAPI documentation is accessible.

            !!! Tip
                Disable this option if you run in production and no one should access the
                documentation unless behind an authentication.
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    redirect_slashes: Annotated[
        Optional[bool],
        Doc(
            """
            Boolean flag indicating if the redirect slashes are enabled for the
            routes or not.
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    pluggables: Annotated[
        Optional[Dict[str, Pluggable]],
        Doc(
            """
            A `list` of global pluggables from objects inheriting from
            `esmerald.interceptors.interceptor.EsmeraldInterceptor`.

            Read more about how to implement the [Plugables](https://esmerald.dev/pluggables/) in Esmerald and to leverage them.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from typing import Optional

            from loguru import logger
            from pydantic import BaseModel

            from esmerald import Esmerald, Extension, Pluggable
            from esmerald.types import DictAny


            class PluggableConfig(BaseModel):
                name: str


            class MyExtension(Extension):
                def __init__(
                    self, app: Optional["Esmerald"] = None, config: PluggableConfig = None, **kwargs: "DictAny"
                ):
                    super().__init__(app, **kwargs)
                    self.app = app

                def extend(self, config: PluggableConfig) -> None:
                    logger.success(f"Successfully passed a config {config.name}")


            my_config = PluggableConfig(name="my extension")
            pluggable = Pluggable(MyExtension, config=my_config)


            app = Esmerald(
                routes=[], pluggables={"my-extension": pluggable}
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    parent: Annotated[
        Optional[Union["ParentType", "Esmerald", "ChildEsmerald"]],
        Doc(
            """
            Used internally by Esmerald to recognise and build the [application levels](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/).

            !!! Tip
                Unless you know what are you doing, it is advisable not to touch this.
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    root_path_in_servers: Annotated[
        bool,
        Doc(
            """
            Boolean flag use to disable the automatic URL generation in the `servers` field
            in the OpenAPI documentation.

            **Examples**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(root_path_in_servers=False)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    webhooks: Annotated[
        Optional[Sequence["gateways.WebhookGateway"]],
        Doc(
            """
            This is the same principle of the `routes` but for OpenAPI webhooks.

            Read more [about webhooks](https://esmerald.dev/routing/webhooks).

            When a webhook is added, it will automatically add them into the
            OpenAPI documentation.
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    openapi_url: Annotated[
        Optional[str],
        Doc(
            """
            The URL where the OpenAPI schema will be served from.
            The default is `/openapi.json`.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(openapi_url="/api/v1/openapi.json")
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
) -> None:
    self.settings_module = None

    if settings_module is not None and isinstance(settings_module, str):
        settings_module = import_string(settings_module)

    if settings_module is not None:
        if not isinstance(settings_module, EsmeraldAPISettings) and not is_class_and_subclass(
            settings_module, EsmeraldAPISettings
        ):
            raise ImproperlyConfigured(
                "settings_module must be a subclass of EsmeraldSettings"
            )
        elif isinstance(settings_module, EsmeraldAPISettings):
            self.settings_module = settings_module  # type: ignore
        elif is_class_and_subclass(settings_module, EsmeraldAPISettings):
            self.settings_module = settings_module()  # type: ignore

    assert lifespan is None or (
        on_startup is None and on_shutdown is None
    ), "Use either 'lifespan' or 'on_startup'/'on_shutdown', not both."

    if allow_origins and cors_config:
        raise ImproperlyConfigured("It can be only allow_origins or cors_config but not both.")

    self.parent = parent

    self._debug = self.load_settings_value("debug", debug, is_boolean=True)
    self.debug = self._debug

    self.title = self.load_settings_value("title", title)
    self.app_name = self.load_settings_value("app_name", app_name)
    self.description = self.load_settings_value("description", description)
    self.version = self.load_settings_value("version", version)
    self.openapi_version = self.load_settings_value("openapi_version", openapi_version)
    self.summary = self.load_settings_value("summary", summary)
    self.contact = self.load_settings_value("contact", contact)
    self.terms_of_service = self.load_settings_value("terms_of_service", terms_of_service)
    self.license = self.load_settings_value("license", license)
    self.servers = self.load_settings_value("servers", servers)
    self.secret_key = self.load_settings_value("secret_key", secret_key)
    self.allowed_hosts = self.load_settings_value("allowed_hosts", allowed_hosts)
    self.allow_origins = self.load_settings_value("allow_origins", allow_origins)
    self.permissions = self.load_settings_value("permissions", permissions) or []
    self.interceptors = self.load_settings_value("interceptors", interceptors) or []
    self.dependencies = self.load_settings_value("dependencies", dependencies) or {}
    self.csrf_config = self.load_settings_value("csrf_config", csrf_config)
    self.cors_config = self.load_settings_value("cors_config", cors_config)
    self.openapi_config = self.load_settings_value("openapi_config", openapi_config)
    self.template_config = self.load_settings_value("template_config", template_config)
    self.static_files_config = self.load_settings_value(
        "static_files_config", static_files_config
    )
    self.session_config = self.load_settings_value("session_config", session_config)
    self.response_class = self.load_settings_value("response_class", response_class)
    self.response_cookies = self.load_settings_value("response_cookies", response_cookies)
    self.response_headers = self.load_settings_value("response_headers", response_headers)
    self.enable_scheduler = self.load_settings_value(
        "enable_scheduler", enable_scheduler, is_boolean=True
    )
    self.scheduler_class = self.load_settings_value("scheduler_class", scheduler_class)
    self.scheduler_tasks = self.load_settings_value("scheduler_tasks", scheduler_tasks) or {}
    self.scheduler_configurations = (
        self.load_settings_value("scheduler_configurations", scheduler_configurations) or {}
    )
    self.timezone = self.load_settings_value("timezone", timezone)
    self.root_path = self.load_settings_value("root_path", root_path)
    self._middleware = self.load_settings_value("middleware", middleware) or []
    _exception_handlers = self.load_settings_value("exception_handlers", exception_handlers)
    self.exception_handlers = {} if _exception_handlers is None else dict(_exception_handlers)
    self.on_startup = self.load_settings_value("on_startup", on_startup)
    self.on_shutdown = self.load_settings_value("on_shutdown", on_shutdown)
    self.lifespan = self.load_settings_value("lifespan", lifespan)
    self.tags = self.load_settings_value("tags", security)
    self.include_in_schema = self.load_settings_value(
        "include_in_schema", include_in_schema, is_boolean=True
    )
    self.security = self.load_settings_value("security", security)
    self.enable_openapi = self.load_settings_value(
        "enable_openapi", enable_openapi, is_boolean=True
    )
    self.redirect_slashes = self.load_settings_value(
        "redirect_slashes", redirect_slashes, is_boolean=True
    )
    self.pluggables = self.load_settings_value("pluggables", pluggables)

    # OpenAPI Related
    self.root_path_in_servers = self.load_settings_value(
        "root_path_in_servers", root_path_in_servers, is_boolean=True
    )

    if not self.include_in_schema or not self.enable_openapi:
        self.root_path_in_servers = False

    self.webhooks = self.load_settings_value("webhooks", webhooks) or []
    self.openapi_url = self.load_settings_value("openapi_url", openapi_url)
    self.tags = self.load_settings_value("tags", tags)

    self.openapi_schema: Optional["OpenAPI"] = None
    self.state: Annotated[
        State,
        Doc(
            """
            The state object for the application. This is always the
            same object across the whole application.

            This can be defined as the application state and not request state
            which means that it does not change each request.

            Learn more in the [Lilya documentation](https://www.lilya.dev/applications/#storing-state-on-the-app-instance).
            """
        ),
    ] = State()
    self.async_exit_config = esmerald_settings.async_exit_config

    self.encoders = self.load_settings_value("encoders", encoders) or []
    self._register_application_encoders()

    if self.enable_scheduler:
        self.activate_scheduler()

    self.router: "Router" = Router(
        on_shutdown=self.on_shutdown,
        on_startup=self.on_startup,
        routes=routes,
        app=self,
        lifespan=self.lifespan,
        deprecated=deprecated,
        security=security,
        redirect_slashes=self.redirect_slashes,
    )
    self.get_default_exception_handlers()
    self.user_middleware = self.build_user_middleware_stack()
    self.middleware_stack = self.build_middleware_stack()
    self.pluggable_stack = self.build_pluggable_stack()
    self.template_engine = self.get_template_engine(self.template_config)

    self._configure()

state instance-attribute

state = State()

The state object for the application. This is always the same object across the whole application.

This can be defined as the application state and not request state which means that it does not change each request.

Learn more in the Lilya documentation.

settings property

settings

Returns the Esmerald settings object for easy access.

This settings are the ones being used by the application upon initialisation.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald()
app.settings

get_template_engine

get_template_engine(template_config)

Returns the template engine for the application based on the TemplateConfig provided.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.config.template import TemplateConfig
from esmerald.template.jinja import JinjaTemplateEngine

template_config = TemplateConfig(
    directory=Path("templates"),
    engine=JinjaTemplateEngine,
)

app = Esmerald()
engine = app.get_template_engine(template_config=)
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
template_config

An instance of TemplateConfig.

This configuration is a simple set of configurations that when passed enables the template engine.

Note

You might need to install the template engine before using this. You can always run pip install esmerald[templates] to help you out.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.config.template import TemplateConfig
from esmerald.template.jinja import JinjaTemplateEngine

template_config = TemplateConfig(
    directory=Path("templates"),
    engine=JinjaTemplateEngine,
)

app = Esmerald(template_config=template_config)

TYPE: TemplateConfig

Source code in esmerald/applications.py
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def get_template_engine(
    self,
    template_config: Annotated[
        "TemplateConfig",
        Doc(
            """
            An instance of [TemplateConfig](https://esmerald.dev/configurations/template/).

            This configuration is a simple set of configurations that when passed enables the template engine.

            !!! Note
                You might need to install the template engine before
                using this. You can always run
                `pip install esmerald[templates]` to help you out.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald.config.template import TemplateConfig
            from esmerald.template.jinja import JinjaTemplateEngine

            template_config = TemplateConfig(
                directory=Path("templates"),
                engine=JinjaTemplateEngine,
            )

            app = Esmerald(template_config=template_config)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ],
) -> Optional["TemplateEngineProtocol"]:
    """
    Returns the template engine for the application based on
    the `TemplateConfig` provided.

    **Example**

    ```python
    from esmerald import Esmerald
    from esmerald.config.template import TemplateConfig
    from esmerald.template.jinja import JinjaTemplateEngine

    template_config = TemplateConfig(
        directory=Path("templates"),
        engine=JinjaTemplateEngine,
    )

    app = Esmerald()
    engine = app.get_template_engine(template_config=)
    ```
    """
    if not template_config:
        return None

    engine: "TemplateEngineProtocol" = template_config.engine(template_config.directory)
    return engine

add_apiview

add_apiview(value)

Adds an APIView or related to the application routing.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald, APIView, Gateway, get

class View(APIView):
    path = "/"

    @get(status_code=status_code)
    async def hello(self) -> str:
        return "Hello, World!"

gateway = Gateway(handler=View)

app = Esmerald()
app.add_apiview(value=gateway)
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
value

The APIView or similar to be added.

TYPE: Union[Gateway, WebSocketGateway]

Source code in esmerald/applications.py
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def add_apiview(
    self,
    value: Annotated[
        Union["gateways.Gateway", "gateways.WebSocketGateway"],
        Doc(
            """
            The `APIView` or similar to be added.
            """
        ),
    ],
) -> None:
    """
    Adds an [APIView](https://esmerald.dev/routing/apiview/) or related
    to the application routing.

    **Example**

    ```python
    from esmerald import Esmerald, APIView, Gateway, get

    class View(APIView):
        path = "/"

        @get(status_code=status_code)
        async def hello(self) -> str:
            return "Hello, World!"

    gateway = Gateway(handler=View)

    app = Esmerald()
    app.add_apiview(value=gateway)
    ```
    """
    self.router.add_apiview(value=value)

add_route

add_route(path, handler, router=None, dependencies=None, interceptors=None, permissions=None, exception_handlers=None, middleware=None, name=None, include_in_schema=True, deprecated=None, activate_openapi=True)

Adds a Route to the application routing.

This is a dynamic way of adding routes on the fly.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald, get

@get(status_code=status_code)
async def hello() -> str:
    return "Hello, World!"

app = Esmerald()
app.add_route(path="/hello", handler=hello)
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
path

Relative path of the Gateway. The path can contain parameters in a dictionary like format.

TYPE: str

handler

An instance of handler.

TYPE: HTTPHandler

router

A esmerald.Router instance to where the route will be added to.

TYPE: Optional[Router] DEFAULT: None

dependencies

A dictionary of string and Inject instances enable application level dependency injection.

TYPE: Optional[Dependencies] DEFAULT: None

interceptors

A list of interceptors to serve the application incoming requests (HTTP and Websockets).

TYPE: Optional[Sequence[Interceptor]] DEFAULT: None

permissions

A list of permissions to serve the application incoming requests (HTTP and Websockets).

TYPE: Optional[Sequence[Permission]] DEFAULT: None

exception_handlers

A dictionary of exception types (or custom exceptions) and the handler functions on an application top level. Exception handler callables should be of the form of handler(request, exc) -> response and may be be either standard functions, or async functions.

TYPE: Optional[ExceptionHandlerMap] DEFAULT: None

middleware

A list of middleware to run for every request. The middlewares of an Include will be checked from top-down or Lilya Middleware as they are both converted internally. Read more about Python Protocols.

TYPE: Optional[List[Middleware]] DEFAULT: None

name

The name for the Gateway. The name can be reversed by path_for().

TYPE: Optional[str] DEFAULT: None

include_in_schema

Boolean flag indicating if it should be added to the OpenAPI docs.

TYPE: bool DEFAULT: True

deprecated

Boolean flag for indicating the deprecation of the Gateway and to display it in the OpenAPI documentation..

TYPE: Optional[bool] DEFAULT: None

activate_openapi

Boolean flag indicating if after adding the route to the application routing system, if it should also be added to the OpenAPI documentation.

TYPE: bool DEFAULT: True

Source code in esmerald/applications.py
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def add_route(
    self,
    path: Annotated[
        str,
        Doc(
            """
            Relative path of the `Gateway`.
            The path can contain parameters in a dictionary like format.
            """
        ),
    ],
    handler: Annotated[
        "HTTPHandler",
        Doc(
            """
            An instance of [handler](https://esmerald.dev/routing/handlers/#http-handlers).
            """
        ),
    ],
    router: Annotated[
        Optional["Router"],
        Doc(
            """
        A `esmerald.Router` instance to where the route will be added to.
        """
        ),
    ] = None,
    dependencies: Annotated[
        Optional["Dependencies"],
        Doc(
            """
            A dictionary of string and [Inject](https://esmerald.dev/dependencies/) instances enable application level dependency injection.
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    interceptors: Annotated[
        Optional[Sequence["Interceptor"]],
        Doc(
            """
            A list of [interceptors](https://esmerald.dev/interceptors/) to serve the application incoming requests (HTTP and Websockets).
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    permissions: Annotated[
        Optional[Sequence["Permission"]],
        Doc(
            """
            A list of [permissions](https://esmerald.dev/permissions/) to serve the application incoming requests (HTTP and Websockets).
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    exception_handlers: Annotated[
        Optional["ExceptionHandlerMap"],
        Doc(
            """
            A dictionary of [exception types](https://esmerald.dev/exceptions/) (or custom exceptions) and the handler functions on an application top level. Exception handler callables should be of the form of `handler(request, exc) -> response` and may be be either standard functions, or async functions.
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    middleware: Annotated[
        Optional[List["Middleware"]],
        Doc(
            """
            A list of middleware to run for every request. The middlewares of an Include will be checked from top-down or [Lilya Middleware](https://www.lilya.dev/middleware/) as they are both converted internally. Read more about [Python Protocols](https://peps.python.org/pep-0544/).
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    name: Annotated[
        Optional[str],
        Doc(
            """
            The name for the Gateway. The name can be reversed by `path_for()`.
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    include_in_schema: Annotated[
        bool,
        Doc(
            """
            Boolean flag indicating if it should be added to the OpenAPI docs.
            """
        ),
    ] = True,
    deprecated: Annotated[
        Optional[bool],
        Doc(
            """
            Boolean flag for indicating the deprecation of the Gateway and to display it
            in the OpenAPI documentation..
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    activate_openapi: Annotated[
        bool,
        Doc(
            """
            Boolean flag indicating if after adding the route
            to the application routing system, if it should
            also be added to the OpenAPI documentation.
            """
        ),
    ] = True,
) -> None:
    """
    Adds a [Route](https://esmerald.dev/routing/routes/)
    to the application routing.

    This is a dynamic way of adding routes on the fly.

    **Example**

    ```python
    from esmerald import Esmerald, get

    @get(status_code=status_code)
    async def hello() -> str:
        return "Hello, World!"

    app = Esmerald()
    app.add_route(path="/hello", handler=hello)
    ```
    """
    router = router or self.router
    router.add_route(
        path=path,
        handler=handler,
        dependencies=dependencies,
        exception_handlers=exception_handlers,
        interceptors=interceptors,
        permissions=permissions,
        middleware=middleware,
        name=name,
        include_in_schema=include_in_schema,
        deprecated=deprecated,
    )

    if activate_openapi:
        self.activate_openapi()

add_websocket_route

add_websocket_route(path, handler, router=None, name=None, dependencies=None, interceptors=None, permissions=None, exception_handlers=None, middleware=None)

Adds a websocket Route to the application routing.

This is a dynamic way of adding routes on the fly.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald, websocket

@websocket()
async def websocket_route(socket: WebSocket) -> None:
    await socket.accept()
    data = await socket.receive_json()

    assert data
    await socket.send_json({"data": "esmerald"})
    await socket.close()

app = Esmerald()
app.add_websocket_route(path="/ws", handler=websocket_route)
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
path

Relative path of the Gateway. The path can contain parameters in a dictionary like format.

TYPE: str

handler

An instance of websocket handler.

TYPE: WebSocketHandler

router

A esmerald.Router instance to where the route will be added to.

TYPE: Optional[Router] DEFAULT: None

name

The name for the WebSocketGateway. The name can be reversed by path_for().

TYPE: Optional[str] DEFAULT: None

dependencies

A dictionary of string and Inject instances enable application level dependency injection.

TYPE: Optional[Dependencies] DEFAULT: None

interceptors

A list of interceptors to serve the application incoming requests (HTTP and Websockets).

TYPE: Optional[Sequence[Interceptor]] DEFAULT: None

permissions

A list of permissions to serve the application incoming requests (HTTP and Websockets).

TYPE: Optional[Sequence[Permission]] DEFAULT: None

exception_handlers

A dictionary of exception types (or custom exceptions) and the handler functions on an application top level. Exception handler callables should be of the form of handler(request, exc) -> response and may be be either standard functions, or async functions.

TYPE: Optional[ExceptionHandlerMap] DEFAULT: None

middleware

A list of middleware to run for every request. The middlewares of an Include will be checked from top-down or Lilya Middleware as they are both converted internally. Read more about Python Protocols.

TYPE: Optional[List[Middleware]] DEFAULT: None

Source code in esmerald/applications.py
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def add_websocket_route(
    self,
    path: Annotated[
        str,
        Doc(
            """
            Relative path of the `Gateway`.
            The path can contain parameters in a dictionary like format.
            """
        ),
    ],
    handler: Annotated[
        "WebSocketHandler",
        Doc(
            """
            An instance of [websocket handler](https://esmerald.dev/routing/handlers/#websocket-handler).
            """
        ),
    ],
    router: Annotated[
        Optional["Router"],
        Doc(
            """
        A `esmerald.Router` instance to where the route will be added to.
        """
        ),
    ] = None,
    name: Annotated[
        Optional[str],
        Doc(
            """
            The name for the WebSocketGateway. The name can be reversed by `path_for()`.
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    dependencies: Annotated[
        Optional["Dependencies"],
        Doc(
            """
            A dictionary of string and [Inject](https://esmerald.dev/dependencies/) instances enable application level dependency injection.
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    interceptors: Annotated[
        Optional[Sequence["Interceptor"]],
        Doc(
            """
            A list of [interceptors](https://esmerald.dev/interceptors/) to serve the application incoming requests (HTTP and Websockets).
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    permissions: Annotated[
        Optional[Sequence["Permission"]],
        Doc(
            """
            A list of [permissions](https://esmerald.dev/permissions/) to serve the application incoming requests (HTTP and Websockets).
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    exception_handlers: Annotated[
        Optional["ExceptionHandlerMap"],
        Doc(
            """
            A dictionary of [exception types](https://esmerald.dev/exceptions/) (or custom exceptions) and the handler functions on an application top level. Exception handler callables should be of the form of `handler(request, exc) -> response` and may be be either standard functions, or async functions.
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    middleware: Annotated[
        Optional[List["Middleware"]],
        Doc(
            """
            A list of middleware to run for every request. The middlewares of an Include will be checked from top-down or [Lilya Middleware](https://www.lilya.dev/middleware/) as they are both converted internally. Read more about [Python Protocols](https://peps.python.org/pep-0544/).
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
) -> None:
    """
    Adds a websocket [Route](https://esmerald.dev/routing/routes/)
    to the application routing.

    This is a dynamic way of adding routes on the fly.

    **Example**

    ```python
    from esmerald import Esmerald, websocket

    @websocket()
    async def websocket_route(socket: WebSocket) -> None:
        await socket.accept()
        data = await socket.receive_json()

        assert data
        await socket.send_json({"data": "esmerald"})
        await socket.close()

    app = Esmerald()
    app.add_websocket_route(path="/ws", handler=websocket_route)
    ```
    """
    router = router or self.router
    return router.add_websocket_route(
        path=path,
        handler=handler,
        dependencies=dependencies,
        exception_handlers=exception_handlers,
        interceptors=interceptors,
        permissions=permissions,
        middleware=middleware,
        name=name,
    )

add_include

add_include(include)

Adds an Include directly to the active application router and creates the proper signature models.

Example

from esmerald import get, Include

@get(status_code=status_code)
async def hello(self) -> str:
    return "Hello, World!"

include = Include("/child", routes=[Gateway(handler=hello)])

app = Esmerald()
app.add_include(include=include)
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
include

The Include instance to be added.

TYPE: Include

Source code in esmerald/applications.py
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def add_include(
    self,
    include: Annotated[
        Include,
        Doc(
            """
            The [Include](https://esmerald.dev/routing/routes/#include) instance
            to be added.
            """
        ),
    ],
) -> None:
    """
    Adds an [Include](https://esmerald.dev/routing/routes/#include) directly to the active application router
    and creates the proper signature models.

    **Example**

    ```python
    from esmerald import get, Include

    @get(status_code=status_code)
    async def hello(self) -> str:
        return "Hello, World!"

    include = Include("/child", routes=[Gateway(handler=hello)])

    app = Esmerald()
    app.add_include(include=include)
    ```
    """
    self.router.routes.append(include)

    for route in include.routes:
        self.router.create_signature_models(route)

    self.activate_openapi()

add_child_esmerald

add_child_esmerald(path, child, name=None, middleware=None, dependencies=None, exception_handlers=None, interceptors=None, permissions=None, include_in_schema=True, deprecated=None, security=None)

Adds a ChildEsmerald directly to the active application router.

Example

from esmerald import get, Include, ChildEsmerald, Esmerald

@get(status_code=status_code)
async def hello(self) -> str:
    return "Hello, World!"

child = ChildEsmerald(routes=[Gateway(handler=hello)])

app = Esmerald()
app.add_child_esmerald(path"/child", child=child)
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
path

TYPE: str

child

The ChildEsmerald instance to be added.

TYPE: ChildEsmerald

name

TYPE: Optional[str] DEFAULT: None

middleware

TYPE: Optional[Sequence[Middleware]] DEFAULT: None

dependencies

TYPE: Optional[Dependencies] DEFAULT: None

exception_handlers

TYPE: Optional[ExceptionHandlerMap] DEFAULT: None

interceptors

TYPE: Optional[List[Interceptor]] DEFAULT: None

permissions

TYPE: Optional[List[Permission]] DEFAULT: None

include_in_schema

TYPE: Optional[bool] DEFAULT: True

deprecated

TYPE: Optional[bool] DEFAULT: None

security

TYPE: Optional[List[SecurityScheme]] DEFAULT: None

Source code in esmerald/applications.py
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def add_child_esmerald(
    self,
    path: str,
    child: Annotated[
        "ChildEsmerald",
        Doc(
            """
            The [ChildEsmerald](https://esmerald.dev/routing/router/#child-esmerald-application) instance
            to be added.
            """
        ),
    ],
    name: Optional[str] = None,
    middleware: Optional[Sequence["Middleware"]] = None,
    dependencies: Optional["Dependencies"] = None,
    exception_handlers: Optional["ExceptionHandlerMap"] = None,
    interceptors: Optional[List["Interceptor"]] = None,
    permissions: Optional[List["Permission"]] = None,
    include_in_schema: Optional[bool] = True,
    deprecated: Optional[bool] = None,
    security: Optional[List["SecurityScheme"]] = None,
) -> None:
    """
    Adds a [ChildEsmerald](https://esmerald.dev/routing/router/#child-esmerald-application) directly to the active application router.

    **Example**

    ```python
    from esmerald import get, Include, ChildEsmerald, Esmerald

    @get(status_code=status_code)
    async def hello(self) -> str:
        return "Hello, World!"

    child = ChildEsmerald(routes=[Gateway(handler=hello)])

    app = Esmerald()
    app.add_child_esmerald(path"/child", child=child)
    ```
    """
    if not isinstance(child, ChildEsmerald):
        raise ImproperlyConfigured("The child must be an instance of a ChildEsmerald.")

    self.router.routes.append(
        Include(
            path=path,
            name=name,
            app=child,
            parent=self.router,
            dependencies=dependencies,
            middleware=cast("List[Middleware]", middleware),
            exception_handlers=exception_handlers,
            interceptors=interceptors,
            permissions=permissions,
            include_in_schema=include_in_schema,
            deprecated=deprecated,
            security=security,
        )
    )
    self.activate_openapi()

add_router

add_router(router)

Adds a Router directly to the active application router.

Example

from esmerald import get
from esmerald.routing.router import Router

@get(status_code=status_code)
async def hello(self) -> str:
    return "Hello, World!"

router = Router(path="/aditional", routes=[Gateway(handler=hello)])

app = Esmerald()
app.add_router(router=router)
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
router

The Router instance to be added.

TYPE: Router

Source code in esmerald/applications.py
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def add_router(
    self,
    router: Annotated[
        "Router",
        Doc(
            """
            The [Router](https://esmerald.dev/routing/router/) instance to be
            added.
            """
        ),
    ],
) -> None:
    """
    Adds a [Router](https://esmerald.dev/routing/router/) directly to the active application router.

    **Example**

    ```python
    from esmerald import get
    from esmerald.routing.router import Router

    @get(status_code=status_code)
    async def hello(self) -> str:
        return "Hello, World!"

    router = Router(path="/aditional", routes=[Gateway(handler=hello)])

    app = Esmerald()
    app.add_router(router=router)
    ```
    """
    for route in router.routes:
        if isinstance(route, Include):
            self.router.routes.append(
                Include(
                    path=route.path,
                    app=route.app,
                    dependencies=route.dependencies,
                    exception_handlers=route.exception_handlers,
                    name=route.name,
                    middleware=cast("List[Middleware]", route.middleware),
                    interceptors=route.interceptors,
                    permissions=route.permissions,
                    routes=cast("Sequence[Union[APIGateHandler, Include]]", route.routes),
                    parent=self.router,
                    security=route.security,
                )
            )
            continue

        gateway = (
            gateways.Gateway
            if not isinstance(route.handler, WebSocketHandler)
            else gateways.WebSocketGateway
        )

        if self.on_startup:
            self.on_startup.extend(router.on_startup)
        if self.on_shutdown:
            self.on_shutdown.extend(router.on_shutdown)

        self.router.routes.append(
            gateway(
                path=route.path,
                dependencies=route.dependencies,
                exception_handlers=route.exception_handlers,
                name=route.name,
                middleware=route.middleware,
                interceptors=route.interceptors,
                permissions=route.permissions,
                handler=route.handler,
                parent=self.router,
                is_from_router=True,
            )
        )

    self.activate_openapi()

add_pluggable

add_pluggable(name, extension)

Adds a Pluggable directly to the active application router.

Example

from loguru import logger
from esmerald import Esmerald, Extension, Pluggable

from pydantic import BaseModel

class Config(BaseModel):
    name: Optional[str]

class CustomExtension(Extension):
    def __init__(self, app: Optional["Esmerald"] = None, **kwargs: DictAny):
        super().__init__(app, **kwargs)
        self.app = app

    def extend(self, config) -> None:
        logger.success(f"Started standalone plugging with the name: {config.name}")

        self.app.add_pluggable("manual", self)

app = Esmerald(routes=[])
config = Config(name="manual")
extension = CustomExtension(app=app)
extension.extend(config=config)
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
name

TYPE: str

extension

TYPE: Extension

Source code in esmerald/applications.py
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def add_pluggable(self, name: str, extension: "Extension") -> None:
    """
    Adds a [Pluggable](https://esmerald.dev/pluggables/) directly to the active application router.

    **Example**

    ```python
    from loguru import logger
    from esmerald import Esmerald, Extension, Pluggable

    from pydantic import BaseModel

    class Config(BaseModel):
        name: Optional[str]

    class CustomExtension(Extension):
        def __init__(self, app: Optional["Esmerald"] = None, **kwargs: DictAny):
            super().__init__(app, **kwargs)
            self.app = app

        def extend(self, config) -> None:
            logger.success(f"Started standalone plugging with the name: {config.name}")

            self.app.add_pluggable("manual", self)

    app = Esmerald(routes=[])
    config = Config(name="manual")
    extension = CustomExtension(app=app)
    extension.extend(config=config)
    ```
    """
    self.pluggables[name] = extension

register_encoder

register_encoder(encoder)

Registers a Encoder into the list of predefined encoders of the system.

PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
encoder

TYPE: Encoder[Any]

Source code in esmerald/applications.py
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def register_encoder(self, encoder: Encoder[Any]) -> None:
    """
    Registers a Encoder into the list of predefined encoders of the system.
    """
    register_esmerald_encoder(encoder)

esmerald.ChildEsmerald

ChildEsmerald(*, settings_module=None, debug=None, app_name=None, title=None, version=None, summary=None, description=None, contact=None, terms_of_service=None, license=None, security=None, servers=None, secret_key=None, allowed_hosts=None, allow_origins=None, permissions=None, interceptors=None, dependencies=None, csrf_config=None, openapi_config=None, openapi_version=None, cors_config=None, static_files_config=None, template_config=None, session_config=None, response_class=None, response_cookies=None, response_headers=None, scheduler_class=None, scheduler_tasks=None, scheduler_configurations=None, enable_scheduler=None, timezone=None, routes=None, root_path=None, middleware=None, encoders=None, exception_handlers=None, on_startup=None, on_shutdown=None, lifespan=None, tags=None, include_in_schema=None, deprecated=None, enable_openapi=None, redirect_slashes=None, pluggables=None, parent=None, root_path_in_servers=None, webhooks=None, openapi_url=None)

Bases: Esmerald

ChildEsmerald application object. The main entry-point for a modular application/API with Esmerald.

The ChildEsmerald inherits directly from the Esmerald object which means all the same parameters, attributes and functions of Esmerald ara also available in the ChildEsmerald.

This object is complex and very powerful. Read more in detail about how to use and spin-up an application in minutes with ChildEsmerald.

Tip

All the parameters available in the object have defaults being loaded by the settings system if nothing is provided.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald, ChildEsmerald, Include

app = Esmerald(routes=[Include('/child', app=ChildEsmerald(...))])
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
settings_module

Alternative settings parameter. This parameter is an alternative to ESMERALD_SETTINGS_MODULE way of loading your settings into an Esmerald application.

When the settings_module is provided, it will make sure it takes priority over any other settings provided for the instance.

Read more about the settings module and how you can leverage it in your application.

Tip

The settings module can be very useful if you want to have, for example, a ChildEsmerald that needs completely different settings from the main app.

Example: A ChildEsmerald that takes care of the authentication into a cloud provider such as AWS and handles the boto3 module.

TYPE: Union[Optional[SettingsType], Optional[str]] DEFAULT: None

debug

Boolean indicating if the application should return the debug tracebacks on server errors, in other words, if you want to have debug errors being displayed.

Read more about this in the official Lilya documentation.

Tip

Do not use this in production.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(debug=True)

TYPE: Optional[bool] DEFAULT: None

app_name

The name of the Esmerald application/API. This name is displayed when the OpenAPI documentation is used.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(app_name="Esmerald")

TYPE: Optional[str] DEFAULT: None

title

The title of the Esmerald application/API. This title is displayed when the OpenAPI documentation is used.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(title="My awesome Esmerald application")

TYPE: Optional[str] DEFAULT: None

version

The version of the Esmerald application/API. This version is displayed when the OpenAPI documentation is used.

Note: This is the version of your application/API and not th version of the OpenAPI specification being used by Esmerald.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(version="0.1.0")

TYPE: Optional[str] DEFAULT: None

summary

The summary of the Esmerald application/API. This short summary is displayed when the OpenAPI documentation is used.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(summary="Black Window joins The Pretenders.")

TYPE: Optional[str] DEFAULT: None

description

The description of the Esmerald application/API. This description is displayed when the OpenAPI documentation is used.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(
    description='''
                Black Window joins The Pretenders.

                ## Powers

                You can **activate_powers**

                ## Skills

                * **read_skill**
                * **use_skill**
                '''
)

TYPE: Optional[str] DEFAULT: None

contact

A dictionary or an object of type openapi_schemas_pydantic.v3_1_0.Contact containing the contact information of the application/API.

Both dictionary and object contain several fields.

  • name - String name of the contact.
  • url - String URL of the contact. It must be in the format of a URL.
  • email - String email address of the contact. It must be in the format of an email address.

Example with object

from esmerald import Esmerald
from openapi_schemas_pydantic.v3_1_0 import Contact

contact = Contact(
    name="Black Window",
    url="https://thepretenders.com/open-for-business",
    email="black.window@thepretenders.com,
)

app = Esmerald(contact=contact)

Example with dictionary

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(contact={
    "name": "Black Window",
    "url": "https://thepretenders.com/open-for-business",
    "email": "black.window@thepretenders.com,
})

TYPE: Optional[Contact] DEFAULT: None

terms_of_service

A URL pointing to the Terms of Service of the application. This description is displayed when the OpenAPI documentation is used.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(terms_of_service="https://example.com/terms-of-service")

TYPE: Optional[AnyUrl] DEFAULT: None

license

A dictionary or an object of type openapi_schemas_pydantic.v3_1_0.License containing the license information of the application/API.

Both dictionary and object contain several fields.

  • name - String name of the license.
  • identifier - An SPDX license expression.
  • url - String URL of the contact. It must be in the format of a URL.

Example with object

from esmerald import Esmerald
from openapi_schemas_pydantic.v3_1_0 import License

license = License(
    name="MIT",
    url="https://opensource.org/license/mit/",
)

app = Esmerald(license=license)

Example with dictionary

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(license={
    "name": "MIT",
    "url": "https://opensource.org/license/mit/",
})

TYPE: Optional[License] DEFAULT: None

security

Used by OpenAPI definition, the security must be compliant with the norms. Esmerald offers some out of the box solutions where this is implemented.

The Esmerald security is available to automatically used.

The security can be applied also on a level basis.

For custom security objects, you must subclass esmerald.openapi.security.base.HTTPBase object.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.openapi.security.http import Bearer

app = Esmerald(security=[Bearer()])

TYPE: Optional[List[SecurityScheme]] DEFAULT: None

servers

A list of python dictionaries with the information regarding the connectivity to the target.

This can be useful, for example, if your application is served from different domains and you want a shared OpenAPI documentation to test it all.

Esmerald automatically handles the OpenAPI documentation generation for you but sometimes you might want to add an extra custom domain to it.

For example, when using ChildEsmerald modules, since the object itself subclasses Esmerald, that also means you can have independent documentation directly in the ChildEsmerald or access the top level documentation (the application itself) where you can select the server to test it.

If the servers list is not provided or an is an empty list, the default value will be a dict with the url pointing to /.

Each dict of the list follows the following format for the parameters:

  • url - A URL string to the target host/domain. The URL may support server variables and it may be also a relative server (for example, the domain/path of a ChildEsmerald).
  • description - An optional string description of the host/domain.
  • variables - A dictionary between the variable and its value. The value is used for substitution in the servers URL template. E.g.: /my-domain/{age: int}.

You can read more about how the OpenAPI documentation is used.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(
    servers=[
        {"url": "https://testing.example.com", "description": "Testing environment"},
        {"url": "https://uat.example.com", "description": "UAT environment"},
        {"url": "https://live.example.com", "description": "Production environment"},
    ]
)

TYPE: Optional[List[Dict[str, Union[str, Any]]]] DEFAULT: None

secret_key

A unique string value used for the cryptography. This value is also used internally by Esmerald with the JWT as well the CSRFConfig.

Tip

Make sure you do not reuse the same secret key across environments as this can lead to security issues that you can easily avoid.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

aop = Esmerald(
    secret_key="p7!3cq1rapxd!@l=gz-&&k*h8sk_n8#1#+n6&q@cb&r!^z^2!g"
)

TYPE: Union[Optional[str], Optional[Secret]] DEFAULT: None

allowed_hosts

A list of allowed hosts for the application. The allowed hosts when not specified defaults to ["*"] but when specified.

The allowed hosts are also what controls the TrustedHostMiddleware and you can read more about how to use it.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(
    allowed_hosts=["*.example.com", "www.foobar.com"]
)

TYPE: Optional[List[str]] DEFAULT: None

allow_origins

A list of allowed origins hosts for the application.

The allowed origins is used by the CORSConfig and controls the CORSMiddleware.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(allow_origins=["*"])

Tip

If you create your own CORSConfig, this setting is ignored and your custom config takes priority.

TYPE: Optional[List[str]] DEFAULT: None

permissions

A list of global permissions from objects inheriting from esmerald.permissions.BasePermission.

Read more about how to implement the Permissions in Esmerald and to leverage them.

Note almost everything in Esmerald can be done in levels, which means these permissions on a Esmerald instance, means the whole application.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald, BasePermission, Request
from esmerald.types import APIGateHandler


class IsAdmin(BasePermission):
    '''
    Permissions for admin
    '''
    async def has_permission(self, request: "Request", apiview: "APIGateHandler"):
        is_admin = request.headers.get("admin", False)
        return bool(is_admin)


app = Esmerald(permissions=[IsAdmin])

TYPE: Optional[Sequence[Permission]] DEFAULT: None

interceptors

A list of global interceptors from objects inheriting from esmerald.interceptors.interceptor.EsmeraldInterceptor.

Read more about how to implement the Interceptors in Esmerald and to leverage them.

Note almost everything in Esmerald can be done in levels, which means these interceptors on a Esmerald instance, means the whole application.

Example

from loguru import logger
from lilya.types import Receive, Scope, Send

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald import EsmeraldInterceptor


class LoggingInterceptor(EsmeraldInterceptor):
    async def intercept(self, scope: "Scope", receive: "Receive", send: "Send") -> None:
        # Log a message here
        logger.info("This is my interceptor being called before reaching the handler.")


app = Esmerald(interceptors=[LoggingInterceptor])

TYPE: Optional[Sequence[Interceptor]] DEFAULT: None

dependencies

A dictionary of global dependencies. These dependencies will be applied to each path of the application.

Read more about Dependencies.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald, Inject

def is_valid(number: int) -> bool:
    return number >= 5

app = Esmerald(
    dependencies={
        "is_valid": Inject(is_valid)
    }
)

TYPE: Optional[Dependencies] DEFAULT: None

csrf_config

An instance of CRSFConfig.

This configuration is passed to the CSRFMiddleware and enables the middleware.

Tip

You can creatye your own CRSFMiddleware version and pass your own configurations. You don't need to use the built-in version although it is recommended to do it so.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.config import CSRFConfig

csrf_config = CSRFConfig(secret="your-long-unique-secret")

app = Esmerald(csrf_config=csrf_config)

TYPE: Optional[CSRFConfig] DEFAULT: None

openapi_config

An instance of OpenAPIConfig.

This object is then used by Esmerald to create the OpenAPI documentation.

Note: Here is where the defaults for Esmerald OpenAPI are overriden and if this object is passed, then the previous defaults of the settings are ignored.

Tip

This is the way you could override the defaults all in one go instead of doing attribute by attribute.

Example

from esmerald import OpenAPIConfig

openapi_config = OpenAPIConfig(
    title="Black Window",
    openapi_url="/openapi.json",
    docs_url="/docs/swagger",
    redoc_url="/docs/redoc",
)

app = Esmerald(openapi_config=openapi_config)

TYPE: Optional[OpenAPIConfig] DEFAULT: None

openapi_version

The string version of the OpenAPI.

Esmerald will generate the OpenAPI 3.1.0 by default and will output that as the OpenAPI version.

If you need to somehow trick some of the tools you are using by setting a different version of the OpenAPI, this is the field you can use to do it so.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(openapi_version="3.1.0")

TYPE: Optional[str] DEFAULT: None

cors_config

An instance of CORSConfig.

This configuration is passed to the CORSMiddleware and enables the middleware.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.config import CSRFConfig

cors_config = CORSConfig(allow_origins=["*"])

app = Esmerald(cors_config=cors_config)

TYPE: Optional[CORSConfig] DEFAULT: None

static_files_config

An instance of StaticFilesConfig.

This configuration is used to enable and serve static files via Esmerald application.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.config import StaticFilesConfig

static_files_config = StaticFilesConfig(
    path="/static", directory=Path("static")
)

app = Esmerald(static_files_config=static_files_config)

TYPE: Optional[StaticFilesConfig] DEFAULT: None

template_config

An instance of TemplateConfig.

This configuration is a simple set of configurations that when passed enables the template engine.

Note

You might need to install the template engine before using this. You can always run pip install esmerald[templates] to help you out.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.config.template import TemplateConfig
from esmerald.template.jinja import JinjaTemplateEngine

template_config = TemplateConfig(
    directory=Path("templates"),
    engine=JinjaTemplateEngine,
)

app = Esmerald(template_config=template_config)

TYPE: Optional[TemplateConfig] DEFAULT: None

session_config

An instance of SessionConfig.

This configuration is passed to the SessionMiddleware and enables the middleware.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.config import SessionConfig

session_config = SessionConfig(
    secret_key=settings.secret_key,
    session_cookie="session",
)

app = Esmerald(session_config=session_config)

TYPE: Optional[SessionConfig] DEFAULT: None

response_class

Global default response class to be used within the Esmerald application.

Read more about the Responses and how to use them.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald, JSONResponse

app = Esmerald(response_class=JSONResponse)

TYPE: Optional[ResponseType] DEFAULT: None

response_cookies

A global sequence of esmerald.datastructures.Cookie objects.

Read more about the Cookies.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.datastructures import Cookie

response_cookies=[
    Cookie(
        key="csrf",
        value="CIwNZNlR4XbisJF39I8yWnWX9wX4WFoz",
        max_age=3000,
        httponly=True,
    )
]

app = Esmerald(response_cookies=response_cookies)

TYPE: Optional[ResponseCookies] DEFAULT: None

response_headers

A global mapping of esmerald.datastructures.ResponseHeader objects.

Read more about the ResponseHeader.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.datastructures import ResponseHeader

response_headers={
    "authorize": ResponseHeader(value="granted")
}

app = Esmerald(response_headers=response_headers)

TYPE: Optional[ResponseHeaders] DEFAULT: None

scheduler_class

Esmerald integrates out of the box with Asyncz and the scheduler class is nothing more than the AsyncIOScheduler provided by the library.

Read more about the scheduler and how to use.

Tip

You can create your own scheduler class and use it with Esmerald. For that you must read the Asyncz documentation and how to make it happen.

Note - To enable the scheduler, you must set the enable_scheduler=True.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from asyncz.schedulers import AsyncIOScheduler

app = Esmerald(scheduler_class=AsyncIOScheduler)

TYPE: Optional[SchedulerType] DEFAULT: None

scheduler_tasks

Mapping in the format <task-name>: <location> indicating the tasks to be run by the scheduler.

Read more about the scheduler and how to use.

Note - To enable the scheduler, you must set the enable_scheduler=True.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(
    enable_scheduler=True,
    scheduler_tasks={
        "collect_market_data": "accounts.tasks",
        "send_newsletter": "accounts.tasks",
    },
)

TYPE: Optional[Dict[str, str]] DEFAULT: None

scheduler_configurations

Mapping of extra configuratioms being passed to the scheduler. These are Asyncz Configurations.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

configurations = {
    "asyncz.stores.mongo": {"type": "mongodb"},
    "asyncz.stores.default": {"type": "redis", "database": "0"},
    "asyncz.executors.threadpool": {
        "max_workers": "20",
        "class": "asyncz.executors.threadpool:ThreadPoolExecutor",
    },
    "asyncz.executors.default": {"class": "asyncz.executors.asyncio::AsyncIOExecutor"},
    "asyncz.task_defaults.coalesce": "false",
    "asyncz.task_defaults.max_instances": "3",
    "asyncz.task_defaults.timezone": "UTC",
}

app = Esmerald(
    scheduler_configurations=configurations
)

TYPE: Optional[Dict[str, Union[str, Dict[str, str]]]] DEFAULT: None

enable_scheduler

Boolean flag indicating if the internal scheduler should be enabled or not.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(enable_scheduler=True)

TYPE: Optional[bool] DEFAULT: None

timezone

Object of time datetime.timezone or string indicating the timezone for the application.

Note - The timezone is internally used for the supported scheduler.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(timezone="UTC")

TYPE: Optional[Union[timezone, str]] DEFAULT: None

routes

A global list of esmerald routes. Those routes may vary and those can be Gateway, WebSocketGateWay or even Include.

This is also the entry-point for the routes of the application itself but it does not rely on only one level.

Read more about how to use and leverage the Esmerald routing system.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald, Gateway, Request, get, Include


@get()
async def homepage(request: Request) -> str:
    return "Hello, home!"


@get()
async def another(request: Request) -> str:
    return "Hello, another!"

app = Esmerald(
    routes=[
        Gateway(handler=homepage)
        Include("/nested", routes=[
            Gateway(handler=another)
        ])
    ]
)

Note

The routing system is very powerful and this example is not enough to understand what more things you can do. Read in more detail about this.

TYPE: Optional[Sequence[Union[APIGateHandler, Include]]] DEFAULT: None

root_path

A path prefix that is handled by a proxy not seen in the application but seen by external libraries.

This affects the tools like the OpenAPI documentation.

**Example^^

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(root_path="/api/v3")

TYPE: Optional[str] DEFAULT: None

middleware

A global sequence of Lilya middlewares or esmerald.middlewares that are used by the application.

Read more about the Middleware.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald
from esmerald.middleware import HTTPSRedirectMiddleware, TrustedHostMiddleware

app = Esmerald(
    routes=[...],
    middleware=[
        DefineMiddleware(TrustedHostMiddleware, allowed_hosts=["example.com", "*.example.com"]),
        DefineMiddleware(HTTPSRedirectMiddleware),
    ],
)

TYPE: Optional[Sequence[Middleware]] DEFAULT: None

encoders

A list of encoders to be used by the application once it starts.

Returns: List of encoders

Example

from typing import Any

from attrs import asdict, define, field, has
from esmerald.encoders import Encoder


class AttrsEncoder(Encoder):

    def is_type(self, value: Any) -> bool:
        return has(value)

    def serialize(self, obj: Any) -> Any:
        return asdict(obj)

    def encode(self, annotation: Any, value: Any) -> Any:
        return annotation(**value)


class AppSettings(EsmeraldAPISettings):

    @property
    def encoders(self) -> Union[List[Encoder], None]:
        return [AttrsEncoder]

TYPE: Sequence[Optional[Encoder]] DEFAULT: None

exception_handlers

A global dictionary with handlers for exceptions.

Note almost everything in Esmerald can be done in levels, which means these exception handlers on a Esmerald instance, means the whole application.

Read more about the Exception handlers.

Example

from pydantic.error_wrappers import ValidationError
from esmerald import (
    Esmerald,
    JSONResponse,
    Request,
    ValidationErrorException,
)

async def validation_error_exception_handler(
    request: Request, exc: ValidationError
) -> JSONResponse:
    extra = getattr(exc, "extra", None)
    if extra:
        return JSONResponse(
            {"detail": exc.detail, "errors": exc.extra.get("extra", {})},
            status_code=status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST,
        )
    else:
        return JSONResponse(
            {"detail": exc.detail},
            status_code=status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST,
        )

app = Esmerald(
    exception_handlers={
            ValidationErrorException: validation_error_exception_handler,
        },
)

TYPE: Optional[ExceptionHandlerMap] DEFAULT: None

on_startup

A list of events that are trigger upon the application starts.

Read more about the events.

Example

from pydantic import BaseModel
from saffier import Database, Registry

from esmerald import Esmerald, Gateway, post

database = Database("postgresql+asyncpg://user:password@host:port/database")
registry = Registry(database=database)


class User(BaseModel):
    name: str
    email: str
    password: str
    retype_password: str


@post("/create", tags=["user"], description="Creates a new user in the database")
async def create_user(data: User) -> None:
    # Logic to create the user
    ...


app = Esmerald(
    routes=[Gateway(handler=create_user)],
    on_startup=[database.connect],
)

TYPE: Optional[List[LifeSpanHandler]] DEFAULT: None

on_shutdown

A list of events that are trigger upon the application shuts down.

Read more about the events.

Example

from pydantic import BaseModel
from saffier import Database, Registry

from esmerald import Esmerald, Gateway, post

database = Database("postgresql+asyncpg://user:password@host:port/database")
registry = Registry(database=database)


class User(BaseModel):
    name: str
    email: str
    password: str
    retype_password: str


@post("/create", tags=["user"], description="Creates a new user in the database")
async def create_user(data: User) -> None:
    # Logic to create the user
    ...


app = Esmerald(
    routes=[Gateway(handler=create_user)],
    on_shutdown=[database.disconnect],
)

TYPE: Optional[List[LifeSpanHandler]] DEFAULT: None

lifespan

A lifespan context manager handler. This is an alternative to on_startup and on_shutdown and you cannot used all combined.

Read more about the lifespan.

TYPE: Optional[Lifespan[AppType]] DEFAULT: None

tags

A list of strings tags to be applied to the path operation.

It will be added to the generated OpenAPI documentation.

Note almost everything in Esmerald can be done in levels, which means these tags on a Esmerald instance, means it will be added to every route even if those routes also contain tags.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(tags=["application"])

Example with nested routes

When tags are added on a level bases, those are concatenated into the final handler.

from esmerald import Esmerald, Gateway, get

@get("/home", tags=["home"])
async def home() -> Dict[str, str]:
    return {"hello": "world"}


app = Esmerald(
    routes=[Gateway(handler=home)],
    tags=["application"]
)

TYPE: Optional[List[str]] DEFAULT: None

include_in_schema

Boolean flag indicating if all the routes of the application should be included in the OpenAPI documentation.

Note almost everything in Esmerald can be done in levels, which means when the application level is set to include_in_schema=False, no schemas will be displayed in the OpenAPI documentation.

Tip

This can be particularly useful if you have, for example, a ChildEsmerald and you don't want to include in the schema the routes of the said ChildEsmerald. This way there is no reason to do it route by route and instead you can simply do it directly in the application level.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(include_in_schema=False)

Example applied to ChildEsmerald

from esmerald import Esmerald, ChildEsmerald, Include

app = Esmerald(routes=[
    Include("/child", app=ChildEsmerald(
        include_in_schema=False
    ))
])

TYPE: Optional[bool] DEFAULT: None

deprecated

Boolean flag indicating if all the routes of the application should be deprecated in the OpenAPI documentation.

Tip

This can be particularly useful if you have, for example, a ChildEsmerald and you want to deprecate in favour of a new one being implemented.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(deprecated=True)

Example with a ChildEsmerald

from esmerald import Esmerald, ChildEsmerald, Include

app = Esmerald(routes=[
    Include("/child", app=ChildEsmerald(
        deprecated=True
    ))
])

TYPE: Optional[bool] DEFAULT: None

enable_openapi

Boolean flag indicating if the OpenAPI documentation should be generated or not.

When False, no OpenAPI documentation is accessible.

Tip

Disable this option if you run in production and no one should access the documentation unless behind an authentication.

```

TYPE: Optional[bool] DEFAULT: None

redirect_slashes

Boolean flag indicating if the redirect slashes are enabled for the routes or not.

TYPE: Optional[bool] DEFAULT: None

pluggables

A list of global pluggables from objects inheriting from esmerald.interceptors.interceptor.EsmeraldInterceptor.

Read more about how to implement the Plugables in Esmerald and to leverage them.

Example

from typing import Optional

from loguru import logger
from pydantic import BaseModel

from esmerald import Esmerald, Extension, Pluggable
from esmerald.types import DictAny


class PluggableConfig(BaseModel):
    name: str


class MyExtension(Extension):
    def __init__(
        self, app: Optional["Esmerald"] = None, config: PluggableConfig = None, **kwargs: "DictAny"
    ):
        super().__init__(app, **kwargs)
        self.app = app

    def extend(self, config: PluggableConfig) -> None:
        logger.success(f"Successfully passed a config {config.name}")


my_config = PluggableConfig(name="my extension")
pluggable = Pluggable(MyExtension, config=my_config)


app = Esmerald(
    routes=[], pluggables={"my-extension": pluggable}
)

TYPE: Optional[Dict[str, Pluggable]] DEFAULT: None

parent

Used internally by Esmerald to recognise and build the application levels.

Tip

Unless you know what are you doing, it is advisable not to touch this.

TYPE: Optional[Union[ParentType, Esmerald, ChildEsmerald]] DEFAULT: None

root_path_in_servers

Boolean flag use to disable the automatic URL generation in the servers field in the OpenAPI documentation.

Examples

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(root_path_in_servers=False)

TYPE: bool DEFAULT: None

webhooks

This is the same principle of the routes but for OpenAPI webhooks.

Read more about webhooks.

When a webhook is added, it will automatically add them into the OpenAPI documentation.

TYPE: Optional[Sequence[WebhookGateway]] DEFAULT: None

openapi_url

The URL where the OpenAPI schema will be served from. The default is /openapi.json.

Example

from esmerald import Esmerald

app = Esmerald(openapi_url="/api/v1/openapi.json")

TYPE: Optional[str] DEFAULT: None

Source code in esmerald/applications.py
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def __init__(
    self: AppType,
    *,
    settings_module: Annotated[
        Union[Optional["SettingsType"], Optional[str]],
        Doc(
            """
            Alternative settings parameter. This parameter is an alternative to
            `ESMERALD_SETTINGS_MODULE` way of loading your settings into an Esmerald application.

            When the `settings_module` is provided, it will make sure it takes priority over
            any other settings provided for the instance.

            Read more about the [settings module](https://esmerald.dev/application/settings/)
            and how you can leverage it in your application.

            !!! Tip
                The settings module can be very useful if you want to have, for example, a
                [ChildEsmerald](https://esmerald.dev/routing/router/?h=childe#child-esmerald-application) that needs completely different settings
                from the main app.

                Example: A `ChildEsmerald` that takes care of the authentication into a cloud
                provider such as AWS and handles the `boto3` module.
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    debug: Annotated[
        Optional[bool],
        Doc(
            """
            Boolean indicating if the application should return the debug tracebacks on
            server errors, in other words, if you want to have debug errors being displayed.

            Read more about this in the official [Lilya documentation](https://www.lilya.dev/applications/#applications).

            !!! Tip
                Do not use this in production.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(debug=True)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    app_name: Annotated[
        Optional[str],
        Doc(
            """
            The name of the Esmerald application/API. This name is displayed when the
            [OpenAPI](https://esmerald.dev/openapi/) documentation is used.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(app_name="Esmerald")
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    title: Annotated[
        Optional[str],
        Doc(
            """
            The title of the Esmerald application/API. This title is displayed when the
            [OpenAPI](https://esmerald.dev/openapi/) documentation is used.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(title="My awesome Esmerald application")
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    version: Annotated[
        Optional[str],
        Doc(
            """
            The version of the Esmerald application/API. This version is displayed when the
            [OpenAPI](https://esmerald.dev/openapi/) documentation is used.

            **Note**: This is the version of your application/API and not th version of the
            OpenAPI specification being used by Esmerald.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(version="0.1.0")
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    summary: Annotated[
        Optional[str],
        Doc(
            """
            The summary of the Esmerald application/API. This short summary is displayed when the [OpenAPI](https://esmerald.dev/openapi/) documentation is used.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(summary="Black Window joins The Pretenders.")
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    description: Annotated[
        Optional[str],
        Doc(
            """
            The description of the Esmerald application/API. This description is displayed when the [OpenAPI](https://esmerald.dev/openapi/) documentation is used.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(
                description='''
                            Black Window joins The Pretenders.

                            ## Powers

                            You can **activate_powers**

                            ## Skills

                            * **read_skill**
                            * **use_skill**
                            '''
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    contact: Annotated[
        Optional[Contact],
        Doc(
            """
            A dictionary or an object of type `openapi_schemas_pydantic.v3_1_0.Contact` containing the contact information of the application/API.

            Both dictionary and object contain several fields.

            * **name** - String name of the contact.
            * **url** - String URL of the contact. It **must** be in the format of a URL.
            * **email** - String email address of the contact. It **must** be in the format
            of an email address.

            **Example with object**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from openapi_schemas_pydantic.v3_1_0 import Contact

            contact = Contact(
                name="Black Window",
                url="https://thepretenders.com/open-for-business",
                email="black.window@thepretenders.com,
            )

            app = Esmerald(contact=contact)
            ```

            **Example with dictionary**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(contact={
                "name": "Black Window",
                "url": "https://thepretenders.com/open-for-business",
                "email": "black.window@thepretenders.com,
            })
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    terms_of_service: Annotated[
        Optional[AnyUrl],
        Doc(
            """
            A URL pointing to the Terms of Service of the application.
            This description is displayed when the [OpenAPI](https://esmerald.dev/openapi/) documentation is used.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(terms_of_service="https://example.com/terms-of-service")
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    license: Annotated[
        Optional[License],
        Doc(
            """
            A dictionary or an object of type `openapi_schemas_pydantic.v3_1_0.License` containing the license information of the application/API.

            Both dictionary and object contain several fields.

            * **name** - String name of the license.
            * **identifier** - An [SPDX](https://spdx.dev/) license expression.
            * **url** - String URL of the contact. It **must** be in the format of a URL.

            **Example with object**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from openapi_schemas_pydantic.v3_1_0 import License

            license = License(
                name="MIT",
                url="https://opensource.org/license/mit/",
            )

            app = Esmerald(license=license)
            ```

            **Example with dictionary**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(license={
                "name": "MIT",
                "url": "https://opensource.org/license/mit/",
            })
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    security: Annotated[
        Optional[List[SecurityScheme]],
        Doc(
            """
            Used by OpenAPI definition, the security must be compliant with the norms.
            Esmerald offers some out of the box solutions where this is implemented.

            The [Esmerald security](https://esmerald.dev/openapi/) is available to automatically used.

            The security can be applied also on a [level basis](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/).

            For custom security objects, you **must** subclass
            `esmerald.openapi.security.base.HTTPBase` object.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald.openapi.security.http import Bearer

            app = Esmerald(security=[Bearer()])
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    servers: Annotated[
        Optional[List[Dict[str, Union[str, Any]]]],
        Doc(
            """
            A `list` of python dictionaries with the information regarding the connectivity
            to the target.

            This can be useful, for example, if your application is served from different domains and you want a shared OpenAPI documentation to test it all.

            Esmerald automatically handles the OpenAPI documentation generation for you but
            sometimes you might want to add an extra custom domain to it.

            For example, when using `ChildEsmerald` modules, since the object itself subclasses
            Esmerald, that also means you can have independent documentation directly in the
            ChildEsmerald or access the [top level](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/)
            documentation (the application itself) where you can select the server to test it.

            If the servers `list` is not provided or an is an empty `list`, the default value
            will be a `dict` with the `url` pointing to `/`.

            Each `dict` of the `list` follows the following format for the parameters:

            * **url** - A URL string to the target host/domain. The URL may support server
            variables and it may be also a relative server (for example, the domain/path of a `ChildEsmerald`).
            * **description** - An optional string description of the host/domain.
            * **variables** - A dictionary between the variable and its value. The value
            is used for substitution in the servers URL template. E.g.: `/my-domain/{age: int}`.

            You can read more about how the [OpenAPI](https://esmerald.dev/openapi/) documentation is used.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(
                servers=[
                    {"url": "https://testing.example.com", "description": "Testing environment"},
                    {"url": "https://uat.example.com", "description": "UAT environment"},
                    {"url": "https://live.example.com", "description": "Production environment"},
                ]
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    secret_key: Annotated[
        Union[Optional[str], Optional["Secret"]],
        Doc(
            """
            A unique string value used for the cryptography. This value is also
            used internally by Esmerald with the JWT as well the
            [CSRFConfig](https://esmerald.dev/configurations/csrf/).

            !!! Tip
                Make sure you do not reuse the same secret key across environments as
                this can lead to security issues that you can easily avoid.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            aop = Esmerald(
                secret_key="p7!3cq1rapxd!@l=gz-&&k*h8sk_n8#1#+n6&q@cb&r!^z^2!g"
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    allowed_hosts: Annotated[
        Optional[List[str]],
        Doc(
            """
            A `list` of allowed hosts for the application. The allowed hosts when not specified
            defaults to `["*"]` but when specified.

            The allowed hosts are also what controls the
            [TrustedHostMiddleware](https://esmerald.dev/middleware/middleware/#trustedhostmiddleware) and you can read more about how to use it.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(
                allowed_hosts=["*.example.com", "www.foobar.com"]
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    allow_origins: Annotated[
        Optional[List[str]],
        Doc(
            """
            A `list` of allowed origins hosts for the application.

            The allowed origins is used by the [CORSConfig](https://esmerald.dev/configurations/cors/) and controls the [CORSMiddleware](https://esmerald.dev/middleware/middleware/#corsmiddleware).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(allow_origins=["*"])
            ```

            !!! Tip
                If you create your own [CORSConfig](https://esmerald.dev/configurations/cors/),
                this setting **is ignored** and your custom config takes priority.
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    permissions: Annotated[
        Optional[Sequence["Permission"]],
        Doc(
            """
            A `list` of global permissions from objects inheriting from
            `esmerald.permissions.BasePermission`.

            Read more about how to implement the [Permissions](https://esmerald.dev/permissions/#basepermission-and-custom-permissions) in Esmerald and to leverage them.

            **Note** almost everything in Esmerald can be done in [levels](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/), which means
            these permissions on a Esmerald instance, means **the whole application**.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald, BasePermission, Request
            from esmerald.types import APIGateHandler


            class IsAdmin(BasePermission):
                '''
                Permissions for admin
                '''
                async def has_permission(self, request: "Request", apiview: "APIGateHandler"):
                    is_admin = request.headers.get("admin", False)
                    return bool(is_admin)


            app = Esmerald(permissions=[IsAdmin])
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    interceptors: Annotated[
        Optional[Sequence["Interceptor"]],
        Doc(
            """
            A `list` of global interceptors from objects inheriting from
            `esmerald.interceptors.interceptor.EsmeraldInterceptor`.

            Read more about how to implement the [Interceptors](https://esmerald.dev/interceptors/) in Esmerald and to leverage them.

            **Note** almost everything in Esmerald can be done in [levels](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/), which means
            these interceptors on a Esmerald instance, means **the whole application**.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from loguru import logger
            from lilya.types import Receive, Scope, Send

            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald import EsmeraldInterceptor


            class LoggingInterceptor(EsmeraldInterceptor):
                async def intercept(self, scope: "Scope", receive: "Receive", send: "Send") -> None:
                    # Log a message here
                    logger.info("This is my interceptor being called before reaching the handler.")


            app = Esmerald(interceptors=[LoggingInterceptor])
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    dependencies: Annotated[
        Optional["Dependencies"],
        Doc(
            """
            A dictionary of global dependencies. These dependencies will be
            applied to each **path** of the application.

            Read more about [Dependencies](https://esmerald.dev/dependencies/).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald, Inject

            def is_valid(number: int) -> bool:
                return number >= 5

            app = Esmerald(
                dependencies={
                    "is_valid": Inject(is_valid)
                }
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    csrf_config: Annotated[
        Optional["CSRFConfig"],
        Doc(
            """
            An instance of [CRSFConfig](https://esmerald.dev/configurations/csrf/).

            This configuration is passed to the [CSRFMiddleware](https://esmerald.dev/middleware/middleware/#csrfmiddleware) and enables the middleware.

            !!! Tip
                You can creatye your own `CRSFMiddleware` version and pass your own
                configurations. You don't need to use the built-in version although it
                is recommended to do it so.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald.config import CSRFConfig

            csrf_config = CSRFConfig(secret="your-long-unique-secret")

            app = Esmerald(csrf_config=csrf_config)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    openapi_config: Annotated[
        Optional["OpenAPIConfig"],
        Doc(
            """
            An instance of [OpenAPIConfig](https://esmerald.dev/configurations/openapi/config/).

            This object is then used by Esmerald to create the [OpenAPI](https://esmerald.dev/openapi/) documentation.

            **Note**: Here is where the defaults for Esmerald OpenAPI are overriden and if
            this object is passed, then the previous defaults of the settings are ignored.

            !!! Tip
                This is the way you could override the defaults all in one go
                instead of doing attribute by attribute.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import OpenAPIConfig

            openapi_config = OpenAPIConfig(
                title="Black Window",
                openapi_url="/openapi.json",
                docs_url="/docs/swagger",
                redoc_url="/docs/redoc",
            )

            app = Esmerald(openapi_config=openapi_config)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    openapi_version: Annotated[
        Optional[str],
        Doc(
            """
            The string version of the OpenAPI.

            Esmerald will generate the OpenAPI 3.1.0 by default and will
            output that as the OpenAPI version.

            If you need to somehow trick some of the tools you are using
            by setting a different version of the OpenAPI, this is the
            field you can use to do it so.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(openapi_version="3.1.0")
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    cors_config: Annotated[
        Optional["CORSConfig"],
        Doc(
            """
            An instance of [CORSConfig](https://esmerald.dev/configurations/cors/).

            This configuration is passed to the [CORSMiddleware](https://esmerald.dev/middleware/middleware/#corsmiddleware) and enables the middleware.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald.config import CSRFConfig

            cors_config = CORSConfig(allow_origins=["*"])

            app = Esmerald(cors_config=cors_config)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    static_files_config: Annotated[
        Optional["StaticFilesConfig"],
        Doc(
            """
            An instance of [StaticFilesConfig](https://esmerald.dev/configurations/staticfiles/).

            This configuration is used to enable and serve static files via
            Esmerald application.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald.config import StaticFilesConfig

            static_files_config = StaticFilesConfig(
                path="/static", directory=Path("static")
            )

            app = Esmerald(static_files_config=static_files_config)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    template_config: Annotated[
        Optional["TemplateConfig"],
        Doc(
            """
            An instance of [TemplateConfig](https://esmerald.dev/configurations/template/).

            This configuration is a simple set of configurations that when passed enables the template engine.

            !!! Note
                You might need to install the template engine before
                using this. You can always run
                `pip install esmerald[templates]` to help you out.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald.config.template import TemplateConfig
            from esmerald.template.jinja import JinjaTemplateEngine

            template_config = TemplateConfig(
                directory=Path("templates"),
                engine=JinjaTemplateEngine,
            )

            app = Esmerald(template_config=template_config)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    session_config: Annotated[
        Optional["SessionConfig"],
        Doc(
            """
            An instance of [SessionConfig](https://esmerald.dev/configurations/session/).

            This configuration is passed to the [SessionMiddleware](https://esmerald.dev/middleware/middleware/#sessionmiddleware) and enables the middleware.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald.config import SessionConfig

            session_config = SessionConfig(
                secret_key=settings.secret_key,
                session_cookie="session",
            )

            app = Esmerald(session_config=session_config)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    response_class: Annotated[
        Optional["ResponseType"],
        Doc(
            """
            Global default response class to be used within the
            Esmerald application.

            Read more about the [Responses](https://esmerald.dev/responses/) and how
            to use them.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald, JSONResponse

            app = Esmerald(response_class=JSONResponse)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    response_cookies: Annotated[
        Optional["ResponseCookies"],
        Doc(
            """
            A global sequence of `esmerald.datastructures.Cookie` objects.

            Read more about the [Cookies](https://esmerald.dev/extras/cookie-fields/?h=responsecook#cookie-from-response-cookies).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald.datastructures import Cookie

            response_cookies=[
                Cookie(
                    key="csrf",
                    value="CIwNZNlR4XbisJF39I8yWnWX9wX4WFoz",
                    max_age=3000,
                    httponly=True,
                )
            ]

            app = Esmerald(response_cookies=response_cookies)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    response_headers: Annotated[
        Optional["ResponseHeaders"],
        Doc(
            """
            A global mapping of `esmerald.datastructures.ResponseHeader` objects.

            Read more about the [ResponseHeader](https://esmerald.dev/extras/header-fields/#response-headers).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald.datastructures import ResponseHeader

            response_headers={
                "authorize": ResponseHeader(value="granted")
            }

            app = Esmerald(response_headers=response_headers)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    scheduler_class: Annotated[
        Optional["SchedulerType"],
        Doc(
            """
            Esmerald integrates out of the box with [Asyncz](https://asyncz.tarsild.io/)
            and the scheduler class is nothing more than the `AsyncIOScheduler` provided
            by the library.

            Read more about the [scheduler](https://esmerald.dev/scheduler/scheduler/?h=scheduler_class#esmeraldscheduler) and how to use.

            !!! Tip
                You can create your own scheduler class and use it with Esmerald.
                For that you must read the [Asyncz](https://asyncz.tarsild.io/schedulers/)
                documentation and how to make it happen.

            **Note** - To enable the scheduler, you **must** set the `enable_scheduler=True`.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from asyncz.schedulers import AsyncIOScheduler

            app = Esmerald(scheduler_class=AsyncIOScheduler)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    scheduler_tasks: Annotated[
        Optional[Dict[str, str]],
        Doc(
            """
            Mapping in the format `<task-name>: <location>` indicating the tasks to
            be run by the scheduler.

            Read more about the [scheduler](https://esmerald.dev/scheduler/scheduler/?h=scheduler_class#esmeraldscheduler) and how to use.

            **Note** - To enable the scheduler, you **must** set the `enable_scheduler=True`.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(
                enable_scheduler=True,
                scheduler_tasks={
                    "collect_market_data": "accounts.tasks",
                    "send_newsletter": "accounts.tasks",
                },
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    scheduler_configurations: Annotated[
        Optional[Dict[str, Union[str, Dict[str, str]]]],
        Doc(
            """
            Mapping of extra configuratioms being passed to the scheduler.
            These are [Asyncz Configurations](https://asyncz.tarsild.io/schedulers/?h=confi#example-configuration).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            configurations = {
                "asyncz.stores.mongo": {"type": "mongodb"},
                "asyncz.stores.default": {"type": "redis", "database": "0"},
                "asyncz.executors.threadpool": {
                    "max_workers": "20",
                    "class": "asyncz.executors.threadpool:ThreadPoolExecutor",
                },
                "asyncz.executors.default": {"class": "asyncz.executors.asyncio::AsyncIOExecutor"},
                "asyncz.task_defaults.coalesce": "false",
                "asyncz.task_defaults.max_instances": "3",
                "asyncz.task_defaults.timezone": "UTC",
            }

            app = Esmerald(
                scheduler_configurations=configurations
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    enable_scheduler: Annotated[
        Optional[bool],
        Doc(
            """
            Boolean flag indicating if the internal scheduler should be enabled
            or not.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(enable_scheduler=True)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    timezone: Annotated[
        Optional[Union[dtimezone, str]],
        Doc(
            """
            Object of time `datetime.timezone` or string indicating the
            timezone for the application.

            **Note** - The timezone is internally used for the supported
            scheduler.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(timezone="UTC")
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    routes: Annotated[
        Optional[Sequence[Union["APIGateHandler", "Include"]]],
        Doc(
            """
            A global `list` of esmerald routes. Those routes may vary and those can
            be `Gateway`, `WebSocketGateWay` or even `Include`.

            This is also the entry-point for the routes of the application itself
            but it **does not rely on only one [level](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/)**.

            Read more about how to use and leverage
            the [Esmerald routing system](https://esmerald.dev/routing/routes/).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald, Gateway, Request, get, Include


            @get()
            async def homepage(request: Request) -> str:
                return "Hello, home!"


            @get()
            async def another(request: Request) -> str:
                return "Hello, another!"

            app = Esmerald(
                routes=[
                    Gateway(handler=homepage)
                    Include("/nested", routes=[
                        Gateway(handler=another)
                    ])
                ]
            )
            ```

            !!! Note
                The routing system is very powerful and this example
                is not enough to understand what more things you can do.
                Read in [more detail](https://esmerald.dev/routing/routes/) about this.
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    root_path: Annotated[
        Optional[str],
        Doc(
            """
            A path prefix that is handled by a proxy not seen in the
            application but seen by external libraries.

            This affects the tools like the OpenAPI documentation.

            **Example^^

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(root_path="/api/v3")
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    middleware: Annotated[
        Optional[Sequence["Middleware"]],
        Doc(
            """
            A global sequence of Lilya middlewares or `esmerald.middlewares` that are
            used by the application.

            Read more about the [Middleware](https://esmerald.dev/middleware/middleware/).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald
            from esmerald.middleware import HTTPSRedirectMiddleware, TrustedHostMiddleware

            app = Esmerald(
                routes=[...],
                middleware=[
                    DefineMiddleware(TrustedHostMiddleware, allowed_hosts=["example.com", "*.example.com"]),
                    DefineMiddleware(HTTPSRedirectMiddleware),
                ],
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    encoders: Annotated[
        Sequence[Optional[Encoder]],
        Doc(
            """
        A `list` of encoders to be used by the application once it
        starts.

        Returns:
            List of encoders

        **Example**

        ```python
        from typing import Any

        from attrs import asdict, define, field, has
        from esmerald.encoders import Encoder


        class AttrsEncoder(Encoder):

            def is_type(self, value: Any) -> bool:
                return has(value)

            def serialize(self, obj: Any) -> Any:
                return asdict(obj)

            def encode(self, annotation: Any, value: Any) -> Any:
                return annotation(**value)


        class AppSettings(EsmeraldAPISettings):

            @property
            def encoders(self) -> Union[List[Encoder], None]:
                return [AttrsEncoder]
        ```
        """
        ),
    ] = None,
    exception_handlers: Annotated[
        Optional["ExceptionHandlerMap"],
        Doc(
            """
            A global dictionary with handlers for exceptions.

            **Note** almost everything in Esmerald can be done in [levels](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/), which means
            these exception handlers on a Esmerald instance, means **the whole application**.

            Read more about the [Exception handlers](https://esmerald.dev/exception-handlers/).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from pydantic.error_wrappers import ValidationError
            from esmerald import (
                Esmerald,
                JSONResponse,
                Request,
                ValidationErrorException,
            )

            async def validation_error_exception_handler(
                request: Request, exc: ValidationError
            ) -> JSONResponse:
                extra = getattr(exc, "extra", None)
                if extra:
                    return JSONResponse(
                        {"detail": exc.detail, "errors": exc.extra.get("extra", {})},
                        status_code=status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST,
                    )
                else:
                    return JSONResponse(
                        {"detail": exc.detail},
                        status_code=status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST,
                    )

            app = Esmerald(
                exception_handlers={
                        ValidationErrorException: validation_error_exception_handler,
                    },
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    on_startup: Annotated[
        Optional[List["LifeSpanHandler"]],
        Doc(
            """
            A `list` of events that are trigger upon the application
            starts.

            Read more about the [events](https://esmerald.dev/lifespan-events/).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from pydantic import BaseModel
            from saffier import Database, Registry

            from esmerald import Esmerald, Gateway, post

            database = Database("postgresql+asyncpg://user:password@host:port/database")
            registry = Registry(database=database)


            class User(BaseModel):
                name: str
                email: str
                password: str
                retype_password: str


            @post("/create", tags=["user"], description="Creates a new user in the database")
            async def create_user(data: User) -> None:
                # Logic to create the user
                ...


            app = Esmerald(
                routes=[Gateway(handler=create_user)],
                on_startup=[database.connect],
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    on_shutdown: Annotated[
        Optional[List["LifeSpanHandler"]],
        Doc(
            """
            A `list` of events that are trigger upon the application
            shuts down.

            Read more about the [events](https://esmerald.dev/lifespan-events/).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from pydantic import BaseModel
            from saffier import Database, Registry

            from esmerald import Esmerald, Gateway, post

            database = Database("postgresql+asyncpg://user:password@host:port/database")
            registry = Registry(database=database)


            class User(BaseModel):
                name: str
                email: str
                password: str
                retype_password: str


            @post("/create", tags=["user"], description="Creates a new user in the database")
            async def create_user(data: User) -> None:
                # Logic to create the user
                ...


            app = Esmerald(
                routes=[Gateway(handler=create_user)],
                on_shutdown=[database.disconnect],
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    lifespan: Annotated[
        Optional[Lifespan[AppType]],
        Doc(
            """
            A `lifespan` context manager handler. This is an alternative
            to `on_startup` and `on_shutdown` and you **cannot used all combined**.

            Read more about the [lifespan](https://esmerald.dev/lifespan-events/).
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    tags: Annotated[
        Optional[List[str]],
        Doc(
            """
            A list of strings tags to be applied to the *path operation*.

            It will be added to the generated OpenAPI documentation.

            **Note** almost everything in Esmerald can be done in [levels](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/), which means
            these tags on a Esmerald instance, means it will be added to every route even
            if those routes also contain tags.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(tags=["application"])
            ```

            **Example with nested routes**

            When tags are added on a level bases, those are concatenated into the
            final handler.

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald, Gateway, get

            @get("/home", tags=["home"])
            async def home() -> Dict[str, str]:
                return {"hello": "world"}


            app = Esmerald(
                routes=[Gateway(handler=home)],
                tags=["application"]
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    include_in_schema: Annotated[
        Optional[bool],
        Doc(
            """
            Boolean flag indicating if all the routes of the application
            should be included in the OpenAPI documentation.

            **Note** almost everything in Esmerald can be done in [levels](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/), which means when the application
            level is set to `include_in_schema=False`, no schemas will be
            displayed in the OpenAPI documentation.

            !!! Tip
                This can be particularly useful if you have, for example, a `ChildEsmerald` and
                you don't want to include in the schema the routes of the said `ChildEsmerald`.
                This way there is no reason to do it route by route and instead you can
                simply do it directly in the application [level](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/).

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(include_in_schema=False)
            ```

             **Example applied to ChildEsmerald**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald, ChildEsmerald, Include

            app = Esmerald(routes=[
                Include("/child", app=ChildEsmerald(
                    include_in_schema=False
                ))
            ])
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    deprecated: Annotated[
        Optional[bool],
        Doc(
            """
            Boolean flag indicating if all the routes of the application
            should be deprecated in the OpenAPI documentation.

            !!! Tip
                This can be particularly useful if you have, for example, a `ChildEsmerald` and
                you  want to deprecate in favour of a new one being implemented.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(deprecated=True)
            ```

            **Example with a ChildEsmerald**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald, ChildEsmerald, Include

            app = Esmerald(routes=[
                Include("/child", app=ChildEsmerald(
                    deprecated=True
                ))
            ])
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    enable_openapi: Annotated[
        Optional[bool],
        Doc(
            """
            Boolean flag indicating if the OpenAPI documentation should
            be generated or not.

            When `False`, no OpenAPI documentation is accessible.

            !!! Tip
                Disable this option if you run in production and no one should access the
                documentation unless behind an authentication.
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    redirect_slashes: Annotated[
        Optional[bool],
        Doc(
            """
            Boolean flag indicating if the redirect slashes are enabled for the
            routes or not.
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    pluggables: Annotated[
        Optional[Dict[str, Pluggable]],
        Doc(
            """
            A `list` of global pluggables from objects inheriting from
            `esmerald.interceptors.interceptor.EsmeraldInterceptor`.

            Read more about how to implement the [Plugables](https://esmerald.dev/pluggables/) in Esmerald and to leverage them.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from typing import Optional

            from loguru import logger
            from pydantic import BaseModel

            from esmerald import Esmerald, Extension, Pluggable
            from esmerald.types import DictAny


            class PluggableConfig(BaseModel):
                name: str


            class MyExtension(Extension):
                def __init__(
                    self, app: Optional["Esmerald"] = None, config: PluggableConfig = None, **kwargs: "DictAny"
                ):
                    super().__init__(app, **kwargs)
                    self.app = app

                def extend(self, config: PluggableConfig) -> None:
                    logger.success(f"Successfully passed a config {config.name}")


            my_config = PluggableConfig(name="my extension")
            pluggable = Pluggable(MyExtension, config=my_config)


            app = Esmerald(
                routes=[], pluggables={"my-extension": pluggable}
            )
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    parent: Annotated[
        Optional[Union["ParentType", "Esmerald", "ChildEsmerald"]],
        Doc(
            """
            Used internally by Esmerald to recognise and build the [application levels](https://esmerald.dev/application/levels/).

            !!! Tip
                Unless you know what are you doing, it is advisable not to touch this.
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    root_path_in_servers: Annotated[
        bool,
        Doc(
            """
            Boolean flag use to disable the automatic URL generation in the `servers` field
            in the OpenAPI documentation.

            **Examples**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(root_path_in_servers=False)
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    webhooks: Annotated[
        Optional[Sequence["gateways.WebhookGateway"]],
        Doc(
            """
            This is the same principle of the `routes` but for OpenAPI webhooks.

            Read more [about webhooks](https://esmerald.dev/routing/webhooks).

            When a webhook is added, it will automatically add them into the
            OpenAPI documentation.
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
    openapi_url: Annotated[
        Optional[str],
        Doc(
            """
            The URL where the OpenAPI schema will be served from.
            The default is `/openapi.json`.

            **Example**

            ```python
            from esmerald import Esmerald

            app = Esmerald(openapi_url="/api/v1/openapi.json")
            ```
            """
        ),
    ] = None,
) -> None:
    self.settings_module = None

    if settings_module is not None and isinstance(settings_module, str):
        settings_module = import_string(settings_module)

    if settings_module is not None:
        if not isinstance(settings_module, EsmeraldAPISettings) and not is_class_and_subclass(
            settings_module, EsmeraldAPISettings
        ):
            raise ImproperlyConfigured(
                "settings_module must be a subclass of EsmeraldSettings"
            )
        elif isinstance(settings_module, EsmeraldAPISettings):
            self.settings_module = settings_module  # type: ignore
        elif is_class_and_subclass(settings_module, EsmeraldAPISettings):
            self.settings_module = settings_module()  # type: ignore

    assert lifespan is None or (
        on_startup is None and on_shutdown is None
    ), "Use either 'lifespan' or 'on_startup'/'on_shutdown', not both."

    if allow_origins and cors_config:
        raise ImproperlyConfigured("It can be only allow_origins or cors_config but not both.")

    self.parent = parent

    self._debug = self.load_settings_value("debug", debug, is_boolean=True)
    self.debug = self._debug

    self.title = self.load_settings_value("title", title)
    self.app_name = self.load_settings_value("app_name", app_name)
    self.description = self.load_settings_value("description", description)
    self.version = self.load_settings_value("version", version)
    self.openapi_version = self.load_settings_value("openapi_version", openapi_version)
    self.summary = self.load_settings_value("summary", summary)
    self.contact = self.load_settings_value("contact", contact)
    self.terms_of_service = self.load_settings_value("terms_of_service", terms_of_service)
    self.license = self.load_settings_value("license", license)
    self.servers = self.load_settings_value("servers", servers)
    self.secret_key = self.load_settings_value("secret_key", secret_key)
    self.allowed_hosts = self.load_settings_value("allowed_hosts", allowed_hosts)
    self.allow_origins = self.load_settings_value("allow_origins", allow_origins)
    self.permissions = self.load_settings_value("permissions", permissions) or []
    self.interceptors = self.load_settings_value("interceptors", interceptors) or []
    self.dependencies = self.load_settings_value("dependencies", dependencies) or {}
    self.csrf_config = self.load_settings_value("csrf_config", csrf_config)
    self.cors_config = self.load_settings_value("cors_config", cors_config)
    self.openapi_config = self.load_settings_value("openapi_config", openapi_config)
    self.template_config = self.load_settings_value("template_config", template_config)
    self.static_files_config = self.load_settings_value(
        "static_files_config", static_files_config
    )
    self.session_config = self.load_settings_value("session_config", session_config)
    self.response_class = self.load_settings_value("response_class", response_class)
    self.response_cookies = self.load_settings_value("response_cookies", response_cookies)
    self.response_headers = self.load_settings_value("response_headers", response_headers)
    self.enable_scheduler = self.load_settings_value(
        "enable_scheduler", enable_scheduler, is_boolean=True
    )
    self.scheduler_class = self.load_settings_value("scheduler_class", scheduler_class)
    self.scheduler_tasks = self.load_settings_value("scheduler_tasks", scheduler_tasks) or {}
    self.scheduler_configurations = (
        self.load_settings_value("scheduler_configurations", scheduler_configurations) or {}
    )
    self.timezone = self.load_settings_value("timezone", timezone)
    self.root_path = self.load_settings_value("root_path", root_path)
    self._middleware = self.load_settings_value("middleware", middleware) or []
    _exception_handlers = self.load_settings_value("exception_handlers", exception_handlers)
    self.exception_handlers = {} if _exception_handlers is None else dict(_exception_handlers)
    self.on_startup = self.load_settings_value("on_startup", on_startup)
    self.on_shutdown = self.load_settings_value("on_shutdown", on_shutdown)
    self.lifespan = self.load_settings_value("lifespan", lifespan)
    self.tags = self.load_settings_value("tags", security)
    self.include_in_schema = self.load_settings_value(
        "include_in_schema", include_in_schema, is_boolean=True
    )
    self.security = self.load_settings_value("security", security)
    self.enable_openapi = self.load_settings_value(
        "enable_openapi", enable_openapi, is_boolean=True
    )
    self.redirect_slashes = self.load_settings_value(
        "redirect_slashes", redirect_slashes, is_boolean=True
    )
    self.pluggables = self.load_settings_value("pluggables", pluggables)

    # OpenAPI Related
    self.root_path_in_servers = self.load_settings_value(
        "root_path_in_servers", root_path_in_servers, is_boolean=True
    )

    if not self.include_in_schema or not self.enable_openapi:
        self.root_path_in_servers = False

    self.webhooks = self.load_settings_value("webhooks", webhooks) or []
    self.openapi_url = self.load_settings_value("openapi_url", openapi_url)
    self.tags = self.load_settings_value("tags", tags)

    self.openapi_schema: Optional["OpenAPI"] = None
    self.state: Annotated[
        State,
        Doc(
            """
            The state object for the application. This is always the
            same object across the whole application.

            This can be defined as the application state and not request state
            which means that it does not change each request.

            Learn more in the [Lilya documentation](https://www.lilya.dev/applications/#storing-state-on-the-app-instance).
            """
        ),
    ] = State()
    self.async_exit_config = esmerald_settings.async_exit_config

    self.encoders = self.load_settings_value("encoders", encoders) or []
    self._register_application_encoders()

    if self.enable_scheduler:
        self.activate_scheduler()

    self.router: "Router" = Router(
        on_shutdown=self.on_shutdown,
        on_startup=self.on_startup,
        routes=routes,
        app=self,
        lifespan=self.lifespan,
        deprecated=deprecated,
        security=security,
        redirect_slashes=self.redirect_slashes,
    )
    self.get_default_exception_handlers()
    self.user_middleware = self.build_user_middleware_stack()
    self.middleware_stack = self.build_middleware_stack()
    self.pluggable_stack = self.build_pluggable_stack()
    self.template_engine = self.get_template_engine(self.template_config)

    self._configure()